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Research Papers

Femtosecond Laser Nanotexturing of Drug-Eluting Stents

[+] Author and Article Information
Rajeev Nair

Applied Engineering and Technology,
Morehead State University,
Morehead, KY 40351

Vaelan Molian

Department of Bioinformatics
and Computational Biology,
Iowa State University,
Ames, IA 50011
e-mail: molian@iastate.edu

Pal Molian

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Iowa State University,
Ames, IA 50011

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF Manufacturing Science and Engineering. Manuscript received June 27, 2011; final manuscript received August 23, 2012; published online November 12, 2012. Assoc. Editor: Yong Huang.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 134(6), 061008 (Nov 01, 2012) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4007713 History: Received June 27, 2011; Revised August 23, 2012

Drug-eluting stents (DES) have profoundly affected the field of interventional cardiology by dramatically reducing the problem of in-stent restenosis. However, the adverse, long-term, thrombosis raises the questions on the safety profile of DES. Femtosecond pulsed laser nanotexturing of metallic stents was performed to minimize thrombosis by improving three fundamental characteristics of DES: (1) increase the availability of drug for elution; (2) enhance the adhesion between stent and drug; and (3) minimize and, if possible, eliminate the polymer carrier. Results of laser-induced nanoprotrusion/drug interactions confirmed these benefits and indicated that femtosecond laser nanotexturing is a potential cost-effective solution for improving the performance and safety of DES while eliminating the need for postfinishing operations.

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Copyright © 2012 by ASME
Topics: Lasers , Drugs , stents , Polymers
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Scanning electron image of laser micromachined nitinol stent

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Fig. 2

Femtosecond laser setup for nanotexturing the stents

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Fig. 3

SEM images of femtosecond laser textured surfaces at various pulse energies and scan rates. The structures essentially consist of ripples and nanospikes.

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Fig. 4

SEM images of femtosecond laser textured stent coupons under distilled water

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Fig. 5

SEM images of high-energy processed stent surfaces

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Fig. 6

Surface roughness profiles of (a) untreated (b) femtosecond pulse laser-textured stent coupons

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Fig. 7

3D images of untreated (a) and laser-textured (b) surfaces. Note the presence of nanospikes in (b).

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Fig. 8

Wettability test results on stents: (a) water drop on the untreated stent surface, contact angle is ∼70 deg; (b) water drop on the laser textured stent surface, contact angle is ∼130 deg

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Fig. 9

Scratch depth and width of laser-textured samples: (a) with drug coating only (b) with drug and polymer coating

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Fig. 10

In vitro release kinetics of sirolimus: (a) untreated stent with drug/polymer coating; (b) untreated stent with drug-only coating; (c) laser textured stent with drug/polymer coating; (d) laser textured stent with drug-only coating

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Fig. 11

SEM images of drug/polymer coated stents after 7-days of in vitro drug release testing. (a) and (b) Untreated stent showing Bulk erosion, delamination, osmosis; (c) and (d) laser-textured stent showing polymer degradation to fibers.

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Fig. 12

SEM images of drug-only coated stents after 7-days of in vitro drug release testing. (a) and (b) Untreated stent showing dissolution/diffusion of drug; (c) and (d) laser-textured stent showing diffusion, pore formation, drug trapped by nanospikes.

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