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Research Papers

Measurement of Transient Tool-Internal Temperature Fields During Hard Turning by Insert-Embedded Thin Film Sensors

[+] Author and Article Information
Xiaochun Li

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Wisconsin-Madison,
Madison, WI 53706

Kornel Ehmann

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Northwestern University,
Evanston, IL 60208

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received May 2, 2011; final manuscript received August 16, 2012; published online November 1, 2012. Assoc. Editor: Shiv G. Kapoor.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 134(6), 061004 (Nov 01, 2012) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4007621 History: Received May 02, 2011; Revised August 16, 2012

This paper presents a novel approach for obtaining thermal data from the close vicinity (70–700 μm) of the tool-workpiece interface while machining hardened steel. Arrays of microthin film C-type thermocouples with a junction size of 5 μm × 5 μm were fabricated by standard microfabrication methods and have been successfully embedded into polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) using a diffusion bonding technique. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were performed to examine material interactions at the bonding interface in order to determine optimal bonding parameters. Static and dynamic sensor performances have been characterized. The sensors exhibit excellent linearity up to 1300 °C, fast rise time of 150 ns, and sensitivity of ∼19 μV/ °C. The PCBN inserts instrumented with embedded thin film C-type thermocouples were successfully applied to measure internal tool temperatures as close as 70 μm to the cutting edge while machining hardened steel workpieces at industrially relevant cutting conditions. Correlations between temperature and cutting parameters have been established. The embedded microthin film sensor array provided unprecedented temporal and spatial resolution as well as high accuracy for microscale transient tool-internal temperature field measurements. Tool-internal temperature maps were generated from acquired data. In the frequency domain, obtained thermal data indicated the onset of regenerative machining chatter earlier and more effective than conventional force measurement by dynamometer.

Copyright © 2012 by ASME
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Sensor fabrication process (not to scale)

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Fig. 2

Overview of sensor layout on PCBN tool

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Fig. 3

Sensor layout at the tool cutting tip (in unit of mm), indicating individual sensor numbers (#1, #2, …) and reference point for sensor localization

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Fig. 4

Microfabricated sensor before diffusion bonding, shaded area highlights diffusion bonding area

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Fig. 5

Instrumented insert

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Fig. 6

SEM (a) and EDS map (b) of aluminum of the bonding interface showing excellent diffusion of diffusion bonding interlayer material, arrows are indicating the bond interface

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Fig. 7

SEM (a) and EDS scan (b) across the embedded sensor film

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Fig. 8

SEM–EDS point scan of embedded sensor film showing good containment in the bonding interface

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Fig. 9

Sensor response to quasi-static heating

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Fig. 10

Sensor response to 9 ns laser pulse, pulse was fired at 1.25 μs

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Fig. 11

Cutting test setup

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Fig. 12

PCBN cutting edge and edge radius measurement, (a) before and (b) after cutting tests of a total of 300 m

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Fig. 13

Typical data obtained during hard turning with TFTCs at 780 μm from cutting edge

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Fig. 14

Typical data obtained during hard turning with TFTCs at 100 μm under rake face

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Fig. 15

Tool-internal temperatures depending on cutting speed and feed rate

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Fig. 16

Experimentally determined tool-internal temperature field when cutting at 190 m/min and 0.075 mm feed, measured at 100 μm under the rake face

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Fig. 17

Spectrum of setup vibrations measured by impulse excitation

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Fig. 18

Evolution of chatter as detected by TFTC #5

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Fig. 19

Evolution of chatter as detected by TFTC #7

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Fig. 20

Frequency spectrum of cutting force and thrust force, showing no indication of chatter

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