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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Laser Bending of Tubes: Mechanism, Analysis, and Prediction

[+] Author and Article Information
Wenchuan Li, Y. Lawrence Yao

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 123(4), 674-681 (Feb 01, 2001) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1392992 History: Received August 01, 2000; Revised February 01, 2001
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

Figures

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(a) Schematic of laser bending of tubes (left) and direction of thermal—induced stresses in the cross section A-A (right) (b) Samples of laser bent tubes (outer diameter 12.7 mm and thickness 0.89 mm) and simulation result of laser bent tube (half tube shown due to symmetry about the scanning plan, deformation magnification ×5, note the protruded intrados near the symmetry plane, power: 780 W, angular speed: 1.57 rad/s, beam diameter: 11 mm, maximum scanning angle, θmax: 180 degree, tube outer diameter: 12.7 mm, wall thickness: 0.89 mm)
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Simplified model of laser bent tube
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Comparison of analytic, numerical, and experimental results of the bending angle vs. scanning speed (a) and laser power (b) (tube outer diameter: 12.7 mm, wall thickness: 0.89 mm).
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(a) Variation of wall thickness and plastic strains in the radial and axial directions at the scanning plane (power: 780 W, scanning speed: 1.57 rad/s, beam diameter: 11 mm, max scanning angle: 180 degree, tube outer diameter: 12.7 mm, wall thickness: 0.89 mm)
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Contour of plastic strain in the radial direction (half tube shown due to symmetry about the scanning plane, deformation magnification ×15, power: 780 W, scanning speed: 1.57 rad/s, beam diameter: 11 mm, max scanning angle: 180 degree, tube outer diameter: 12.7 mm, wall thickness: 0.89 mm)
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Simulation and experimental measurements of the protruded intrados at the axial cross section (t: original wall thickness) and photograph of the protruded intrados (vertical/horizontal magnification=5:1) (power: 780 W, scanning speed: 1.57 rad/s, beam diameter: 11 mm, maximum scanning angle, θmax: 180 degree, tube outer diameter: 12.7 mm, wall thickness: 0.89 mm)
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(a) Simulation and experimental results of ovalization of the cross section at the scanning plane (b) Simulation results of the radial displacements of the outer surface at the scanning plane (tube outer diameter: 12.7 mm, wall thickness: 0.89 mm)
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(a) Asymmetry of deformation, i.e., tilting rightwards as seen from this top view (half tube shown due to symmetry about the scanning plane, magnification ×20) (b) Improvement of symmetry by varying the scanning speed (×20), and (c) Variation of maximum temperature under the conditions of the constant scanning speed (1.57 rad/s) and the varying scanning speed (power: 780 W, beam diameter: 11 mm, max scanning angle, θmax: 180 deg, tube outer diameter: 12.7 mm, wall thickness: 0.89 mm)
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Variation of maximum temperature under the two-segment scanning scheme (0 deg to 90 deg and then 180 deg to 90 deg) (power: 780 W, beam diameter: 11 mm, max scanning angle, θmax: 180 deg, tube outer diameter: 12.7 mm, wall thickness: 0.89 mm)
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(a) Variation of the bending angle with the max scanning angle (tube outer diameter: 12.7 mm, wall thickness: 0.89 mm) and (b) Dependence of the bending angle on the beam diameter for different ratios of tube outer diameter, D, to wall thickness, t (t=0.89 mm).
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(a) Axial plastic strain on the outer surface at the intrados and curvature radius vs. distance from the scanning plane (b) Average curvature radius of the bent tube vs. beam diameter for different ratios of outer diameter vs. wall thickness (power: 780 W, scanning speed: 1.57 rad/s, maximum scanning angle: 270 degree, wall thickness: 0.89 mm)
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Experimental results of the bending angle and average curvature radius vs. number of scans (power: 780 W, scanning speed: 1.57 rad/s, beam diameter: 11 mm, maximum scanning angle: 270 degree, tube outer diameter: 12.7 mm, wall thickness: 0.89 mm)

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