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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Successive Deposition of Metals in Solid Freeform Fabrication Processes, Part 2: Thermomechanical Models of Adjacent Droplets

[+] Author and Article Information
R. K. Chin, J. L. Beuth, C. H. Amon

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, PA 15213

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 123(4), 632-638 (May 01, 2000) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1380200 History: Received September 01, 1999; Revised May 01, 2000
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

Bourell, D. L., Beaman, J. J., Crawford, R. H., Marcus, H. L., and Barlow, J. W., eds., 2000, Solid Freeform Fabrication Proceedings, Proc. 2000 Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, Austin, August 2000.
Chin,  R. K., Beuth,  J. L., and Amon,  C. H., 1996, “Thermomechanical Modeling of Molten Metal Droplet Solidification Applied to Layered Manufacturing,” Mech. Mater., 24, pp. 257–271.
Chin, R. K., Beuth, J. L., and Amon, C. H., 1995, “Control of Residual Thermal Stresses in Shape Deposition Manufacturing,” Solid Freeform Fabrication Proceedings (H. L. Marcus, J. J. Beaman, D. L. Bourell, J. W. Barlow, and R. H. Crawford, eds.), Proc. 1995 Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, Austin, August 1995, pp. 221–228.
Chin, R. K., Beuth, J. L., and Amon, C. H., 1996, “Thermomechanical Modeling of Successive Material Deposition in Layered Manufacturing,” Solid Freeform Fabrication Proceedings (D. L. Bourell, J. J. Beaman, H. L. Marcus, R. H. Crawford and J. W. Barlow, eds.), Proc. 1996 Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, Austin, August 1996, pp. 507–514.
Klingbeil, N. W., Zinn, J. W., and Beuth, J. L., 1997, “Measurement of Residual Stresses in Parts Created by Shape Deposition Manufacturing,” Solid Freeform Fabrication Proceedings (D. L. Bourell, J. J. Beaman, R. H. Crawford, H. L. Marcus and J. W. Barlow, eds.), Proc. 1997 Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, Austin, August 1997, pp. 125–132.
Klingbeil, N. W., Beuth, J. L., Chin, R. K., and Amon, C. H., 1998, “Measurement and Modeling of Residual Stress-Induced Warping in Direct Metal Deposition Processes,” Solid Freeform Fabrication Proceedings, (D. L. Bourell, J. J. Beaman, R. H. Crawford, H. L. Marcus and J. W. Barlow, eds.), Proc. 1998 Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, Austin, August 1998, pp. 367–374.
Fessler, J. R., Merz, R., Nickel, A. H., and Prinz, F. B., 1996, “Laser Deposition of Metals for Shape Deposition Manufacturing,” Solid Freeform Fabrication Proceedings (D. L. Bourell, J. J. Beaman, H. L. Marcus, R. H. Crawford, and J. W. Barlow, eds.), Proc. 1996 Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, Austin, August 1996, pp. 117–124.
Nickel, A. H., Barnett, D. M., and Prinz, F. B., 2000, “Deposition Pattern Effects in Layered Manufacturing,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A, submitted.
Yao, W. L., and Leu, M. C., 1998, “Shell Cracking in Investment Casting with Laser Stereolithography Patterns,” Solid Freeform Fabrication Proceedings (D. L. Bourell, J. J. Beaman, R. H. Crawford, H. L. Marcus, and J. W. Barlow, eds.), Proc. 1998 Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, Austin, August 1998, pp. 427–434.
Chin,  R. K., Beuth,  J. L., and Amon,  C. H., 2001, “Successive Deposition of Metals in Solid Freeform Fabrication Processes Part I: Thermomechanical Models of Layers and Droplet Columns,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 123, pp. 623–631.
Merz, R., Prinz, F. B., Ramaswami, K., Terk, M., and Weiss, L. E., 1994, “Shape Deposition Manufacturing,” Solid Freeform Fabrication Proceedings (H. L. Marcus, J. J. Beaman, D. L. Bourell, J. W. Barlow, and R. H. Crawford, eds.), Proc. 1994 Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, Austin, August 1994, pp. 1–8.
Amon,  C. H., Beuth,  J. L., Merz,  R., Prinz,  F. B., and Weiss,  L. E., 1998, “Shape Deposition Manufacturing with Microcasting: Processing, Thermal and Mechanical Issues,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 120, No. 3, pp. 656–665.
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Amon,  C. H., Schmaltz,  K. S., Merz,  R., and Prinz,  F. B., 1996, “Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Interface Bonding via Substrate Remelting of an Impinging Molten Metal Droplet,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 118, pp. 164–172.
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Schmaltz, K. S., 1997, The Impinging Behavior of a Molten Metal Droplet: Integration of Analytical, Numerical and Experimental Techniques, Doctoral Thesis, Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
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Figures

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Schematics of successive deposition models for (a) adjacent, separated droplets (b) adjacent, connected droplets and (c) adjacent, separated droplets on a thin substrate
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Mesh and boundary conditions for the model of adjacent, separated droplets
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Mesh and boundary conditions for the model of adjacent, connected droplets
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Contour plots of temperatures 0.5 s after deposition of a first droplet, taken from (a) 3-D and (b) 2-D axisymmetric simulations
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Temperature distributions under the centerline of each separated droplet 0.5 s and 1.5 s after deposition of the previous droplet
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Stress distributions in the deposition direction, σxx, under the centerline of each droplet 0.5 s after deposition of the previous droplet and at steady state
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Stress distributions in the deposition direction, σxx, and transverse to the deposition direction, σyy, under the centerline of a third deposited droplet
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Temperature distributions under the centerline of each connected droplet 0.5 s and 1.5 s after deposition of the previous droplet
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Temperatures in a semi-infinite substrate calculated using Eq. (1)
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Temperature distributions under the centerline of each separated droplet deposited onto a thin substrate 0.5 s and 1.5 s after deposition of the previous droplet

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