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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Statistical Investigation on Resistance Spot Welding Quality Using a Two-State, Sliding-Level Experiment

[+] Author and Article Information
Wei Li

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-2600

Shaowei Cheng

Institute of Statistical Science, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan

S. Jack Hu, Justin Shriver

Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 123(3), 513-520 (Dec 01, 2000) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1382595 History: Received April 01, 2000; Revised December 01, 2000
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

Gedeon,  S. A., Sorensen,  C. D., Ulrich,  K. T., and Eagar,  T. W., 1987, “Measurement of Dynamic Electrical and Mechanical Properties of Resistance Spot Welds,” Weld. J. (Miami), 66, No. 12, pp. 378s–385s.
Kaiser, J. G., Dunn, G. J., and Eagar, T. W., 1982, “The Effect of Electrical Resistance on Nugget Formation During Spot Welding,” Weld. J. (Miami), June pp. 167s–174s.
Nagel, G. L., and Lee, A., 1988, “A New Approach to Spot Welding Feedback Control,” SAE Technical Paper, No. 880371.
Karagoulis, M., 1992, “Control of Materials Processing Variables in Production Resistance Spot Welding,” Proc. AWS Sheet Metal Welding Conference V, Detroit, Mich., Paper No. B5.
Karagoulis,  M., 1995, “Nuts-and-Bolts Approach to the Control of Resistance Spot Welding,” Weld. J. (Miami), 73, No. 7, pp. 27–31.
Holliday,  R., Parker,  J. D., and Williams,  N. T., 1995, “Electrode Deformation When Spot Welding Coated Steels,” Welding in the World,35, No. 3, pp. 160–164.
Nied,  A. H., 1984, “The Finite Modeling of the Resistance Spot Welding Process,” Weld. J. (Miami), 63, No. 4, pp. 123s–132s.
Gupta,  O. P., and De,  A., 1998, “An Improved Numerical Modeling for Resistance Spot Welding Process and Its Experimental Verification,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 120, pp. 246–251.
Auto Body Consortium/Intelligent Resistance Welding Program (ABC/IRW), 1997, Quarterly Progress Report, No. 202.
Auto/Steel Partnership (A/SP), 1995, Weld Quality Test Method Manual, Standardized Test Method Task Force.
Cheng, S., Li, W., and Hu, S. J., 2001, “Two-stage, Sliding-level Experiments: Design and Analysis,” to be submitted to Technometrics.
Wu, C. F. J., and Hamada, M., 2000, Experiments: Planning, Analysis and Parameter Design Optimization, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY.
Taguchi, G., 1987, System of Experimental Design, Unipub/Kraus International Publications, White Plains, NY.
General Motors Corporation, 1985, Specifications and Procedures for Determining the Weldability of Body Steel Materials.
Zhang,  H., Hu,  S. J., Senkara,  J., and Cheng,  S., 2000, “A Statistical Analysis of Expulsion Limits in Resistance Spot Welding,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 122, No. 3, pp. 501–510.
Draper, N. R., and Smith, H., 1998, Applied Regression Analysis, 3rd ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY.

Figures

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Abnormal process conditions (Poor Cooling and Electrode Wear not shown) (a) Axial Misalignment (b) Angular Misalignment (c) Edge Weld (d) Poor Fitup
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Destructive testing of a spot-welded joint 10
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The significance of the abnormal process conditions
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Levels of welding current
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Linear and quadratic coding of electrode size
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Main effects on the center of the current range
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Main effects on the length of the current range
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Main effects on the button size
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Model selection for the button size
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Predictions under various process conditions
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Significance of the control factors
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Normalized error vs. button size

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