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Research Papers

Numerical Modeling of Copper Tube Extrusion: Process and Eccentricity Analysis

[+] Author and Article Information
Luigi De Pari

Institute for Metal Forming,  Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015

Wojciech Z. Misiolek

Institute for Metal Forming,  Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015wzm2@lehigh.edu

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 134(5), 051005 (Sep 10, 2012) (17 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4007283 History: Received October 27, 2009; Revised July 24, 2012; Published September 10, 2012; Online September 10, 2012

In order to simulate copper extrusion more closely to industrial practices and to analyze the roots of the complicated issue of tube eccentricity, the material properties and the extrusion conditions were simulated using the finite element modeling (fem ) software package, DEFORMTM -3D. This allowed prediction of stress, strain, strain rate, and temperature conditions within the billet during various processing conditions. These state variables were considered when ascertaining the influence of degree of billet upset and tool misalignment on tube eccentricity. It was found that under ideal upset conditions and perfect tool alignment, the tube eccentricity was minimized. If the piercer (or mandrel) was aligned with an initial angular or parallel misalignment that was still within tolerance the impact on eccentricity initially is minor in comparison to the eccentricity produced toward the end of extrusion, with the angular misalignment scenario being the more severe case. As a result, an angular misalignment is more detrimental than a parallel misalignment for tube preform eccentricity with the given forming parameters.

Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 8

Upset 39% of the full upset distance. (a) Front view of billet as it fills the container due to the piercer. (b) Displacement vectors showing relative billet material flow toward the gap that remains after the upset.

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Figure 18

Eccentricity at (a) 0.635 m (25 in.), (b) 1.270 m (50 in.), and (c) 2.540 m (100 in.) from the tip of the extrudate for the 100% upset scenario

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Figure 19

Velocity profile during piercing for the 100% upset scenario

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Figure 9

Upset 39% of the full upset distance. (a) The deviation of the piercer relative to the die toward the positive y-direction after 356 mm (14 in.) into the billet. (b) Piercer deviation toward direction of material flow.

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Figure 10

The billet was upset 35 mm (1.385 in.) (80% of the length required to fully fill the container). Gaps between billet and container still remain.

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Figure 11

Upset 80% of the full upset distance. (a) The deviation of the piercer relative to the die toward the positive y-direction with the billet pierced 546 mm (21.5 in.). (b) Side view of the partially pierced billet.

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Figure 12

Velocity profile during piercing for the 80% upset scenario

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Figure 13

Temperature distribution during piercing for the 80% upset scenario

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Figure 14

The billet was upset 44 mm (1.731 in.) (100% of the length required to fully fill the container). Air gaps between billet and container still exist.

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Figure 15

Upset 100% of the full upset distance. (a) The deviation of the piercer relative to the die toward the positive y-direction with the billet pierced 546 mm (21.5 in.). (b) Side view of the partially pierced billet.

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Figure 16

Upset 100% of the full upset distance. (a) The piercer just before entering the die. (b) The piercer partially within the die.

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Figure 17

Upset 100% of the full upset distance. Three progressive stages of piercing that examine the influence of piercer effective stress on piercer alignment.

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Figure 1

Eccentricity, E is the percentage of maximum variation in tube wall thickness from an average value

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Figure 2

Cross section of the extrusion process components

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Figure 3

Steps of the copper extrusion process

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Figure 4

Alloy C10100 flow stress data. Strain rate (a) 0.3 s−1 , (b) 3 s−1 , and (c) 100 s−1 .

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Figure 5

Mesh density windows for critical deformation zones

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Figure 6

Starting condition for copper extrusion: 1700 °F billet resting on the bottom of the container. (a) Front view of liner, die, and billet; (b) front view of liner, die, and piercer; and (c) side view of die, billet, and piercer.

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Figure 7

Extrusion process after the billet was upset 39% of the full upset distance required to fill the container

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Figure 20

Temperature distribution during piercing for the 100% upset scenario

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Figure 21

(a) The deviation of the piercer relative to the die for the 0.04 deg scenario after 546 mm (21.5 in.) into the billet. (b) Side view of the partially pierced billet.

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Figure 22

0.04 deg misalignment scenario. (a) The piercer just before entering the die. (b) The piercer through the die.

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Figure 23

Eccentricity at (a) 0.635 m (25 in.), (b) 1.270 m (50 in.), and (c) 2.540 m (100 in.) from the tip of the extrudate for the 0.04 deg scenario

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Figure 24

Three progressive stages of piercing that examine the influence of piercer effective stress on piercer alignment in the 0.04 deg scenario

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Figure 25

Eccentricity at 0.635 m (25 in.), 1.270 m (50 in.), and 2.540 m (100 in.) from the rear of the extrudate for the 0.04 deg scenario

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Figure 26

0.04 deg misalignment scenario. (a) Closing of tube at the end of the extrusion process. (b) Eccentricity at 0.127 m (5 in.) from the rear of the extrudate.

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Figure 27

(a) The deviation of the piercer relative to the die for the parallel misalignment scenario after 546 mm (21.5 in.) into the billet. (b) Side view of the partially pierced billet.

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Figure 28

Parallel misalignment scenario. (a) The piercer just before entering the die. (b) The piercer through the die.

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Figure 29

Eccentricity at (a) 0.635 m (25 in.), (b) 1.270 m (50 in.), and (c) 2.540 m (100 in.) from the tip of the extrudate for the parallel misalignment scenario

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Figure 30

Three progressive stages of piercing that examine the influence of piercer effective stress on piercer alignment during the parallel misalignment scenario

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Figure 31

Eccentricity at 0.635 m (25 in.), 1.270 m (50 in.), and 2.540 m (100 in.) from the rear of the extrudate for the parallel misalignment scenario

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Figure 32

Parallel misalignment scenario. (a) Closing of tube at the end of the extrusion process. (b) Eccentricity at 0.127 m (5 in.) from the rear of the extrudate.

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