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Research Papers

On the Volumetric Assessment of Tool Wear in Machining Inserts With Complex Geometries—Part 1: Need, Methodology, and Standardization

[+] Author and Article Information
Mathew A. Kuttolamadom, M. Laine Mears

Thomas R. Kurfess

 Clemson University, International Center for Automotive Research (CU-ICAR), Greenville, SC 29607kurfess@clemson.edu

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 134(5), 051002 (Aug 28, 2012) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4007184 History: Received August 18, 2011; Revised June 08, 2012; Published August 27, 2012; Online August 28, 2012

The objectives of this paper are to qualitatively assess the inadequacies of the current manner of tool wear quantification and consequently to suggest/develop a more comprehensive approach for machining tool wear characterization. Traditional parameters used for tool wear representation such as flank and crater wear are no longer self-sufficient to satisfactorily represent the advanced wear status of more recent cutting tools with complex geometric profiles. These complexities in tool geometries are all the more pronounced when catered to difficult-to-machine materials such as titanium and its alloys. Hence, alternatives to traditional tool wear assessment parameters are briefly explored and a suitable one is selected, that will help understand the very nature of the evolving wear profile itself from a three dimensional standpoint. The assessment methodology is further developed and standardized and suggestions for future use and deployment are provided. The measurement system is evaluated using an analysis of variance (ANOVA) gauge repeatability and reproducibility (R&R) study as well. In Part 2 of this paper, this method is deployed for assessing tool wear in machining Ti-6Al-4 V and concepts such as the M-ratio and its derivatives are developed to quantify the efficiency of the cutting tool during each pass.

Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Topics: Wear
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

(a) Flank and (b) crater wear nomenclature [6]

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Figure 2

Typical wear patterns: (a) Flaking (FL) on face-mill, (b) stair-formed face wear (KT2) on end-mill [2]

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Figure 3

An inconsistent wear quantification scenario

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Figure 4

Idealized wear patterns for volumetric wear [9]

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Figure 5

A typical titanium milling insert

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Figure 6

Point cloud processing for VTW: (a) Intensity map, (b) point cloud 3D model, (c) point cloud in rectangular coordinates, and (d) surface model

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Figure 7

Reference entities for this insert type

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Figure 8

Four bounding planes created off the earlier defined reference entities

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Figure 9

Solid model manipulation to obtain volume: (a) Solid model after split by 28° plane, (b) split by remaining three planes (surface model superimposed)

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Figure 10

VTW for a failed insert: (a) Insert image, (b) point cloud 3D model, (c) point cloud in rectangular coordinates, and (d) final surface/solid models overlaid

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Figure 11

General VTW methodology flowchart

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Figure 12

Multiple scan procedure: (a) Rake face, (b) raw scan #2, (c) raw scan #3, (d) all five raw scans, (e) top view, (f) all but one matched, (g) point cloud, and (h) surface model

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Figure 13

Worn milling insert #1: (a) Magnified image at 40× and (b) surface model

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Figure 14

Worn milling insert #2: (a) Magnified image at 40× and (b) surface model

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Figure 15

Worn milling insert #3: (a) Magnified image at 40× and (b) surface model

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Figure 16

ANOVA gauge R&R evaluation of system

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Figure 17

ISCAR IC-28: (a) and (b) Flank and (c) and (d) rake faces

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Figure 18

Sandvik (milling): (a) and (b) Flank and (c) and (d) rake faces

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Figure 19

Sandvik (turning): (a) and (b) Flank and (c) and (d) rake faces

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