Research Papers

Tool Embedded Thin Film Microsensors for Monitoring Thermal Phenomena at Tool-Workpiece Interface During Machining

[+] Author and Article Information
Dirk Werschmoeller

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1513 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706

Kornel Ehmann

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208

Xiaochun Li

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1513 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706xcli@engr.wisc.edu

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 133(2), 021007 (Mar 14, 2011) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4003616 History: Received March 08, 2010; Revised January 31, 2011; Published March 14, 2011; Online March 14, 2011

Existing thermal sensors for machining processes are having difficulties to reliably provide high spatial and temporal resolutions for monitoring and control of the dynamic thermal phenomena at the tool-workpiece interface during machining. This paper presents a novel approach to obtain transient tool internal temperature data reliably from a very close distance to the tool-workpiece interface. An array of nine microthin film thermocouples, fabricated using standard microfabrication methods, has been embedded into polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) cutting inserts by means of diffusion bonding. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to examine thin film sensor and host material interactions at the bonding interface and to determine optimal bonding parameters. The thin film microthermal sensors were statically and dynamically characterized by heating in a tube furnace and application of pulsed laser radiation. The embedded thin film thermal sensors exhibit good linearity, sensitivity, and extremely fast response time. The instrumented PCBN inserts were applied in machining of aluminum alloy 6061 disks at various cutting speeds and feed rates. Embedded into the PCBN inserts at numerous distances of 75450μm from tool rake face and 100500μm from tool flank face, these microsensors enabled the sensing of transient cutting temperature fields with high spatial and temporal resolutions. The temperature data obtained during cutting demonstrate the functionality of the tool embedded microthermal sensors and their value for fast, accurate, and reliable monitoring, which will be of significance for both fundamental study and in-process control of machining operations.

Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Microfabricated sensor array on PCBN base substrate before diffusion bonding, and the sensor array layout, units of mm

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Figure 2

Heating schedule for diffusion bonding

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Figure 3

Embedded thermocouple sensor unit: (a) after diffusion bonding and (b) after grinding

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Figure 4

(a) SEM image of seamlessly embedded sensor films and (b) EDS scan across the interface

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Figure 5

(a) Diffusion bonding interface at the interlayer and (b) EDS scan across the interface

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Figure 7

Sensor response to short laser pulse

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Figure 8

Cutting test setup

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Figure 9

Schematic of cutting experiments showing tool internal sensor locations

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Figure 10

Typical raw data recorded during machining tests on mill

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Figure 11

Tool internal temperature rise at 150 μm from the flank face

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Figure 12

Tool internal temperature rise at 100 μm from the flank face

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Figure 13

Tool internal temperature depending on feed

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Figure 14

Temperature measurements during interrupted cutting

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Figure 6

Sensor calibration



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