Research Papers

Development of Plasma Nanomanufacturing Workcell

[+] Author and Article Information
King Wai Chiu Lai1

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824kinglai@egr.msu.edu

Jeffri J. Narendra, Ning Xi, Jiangbo Zhang, Timothy A. Grotjohn, Jes Asmussen

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824


Corresponding author.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 132(3), 031003 (Apr 29, 2010) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4001719 History: Received June 16, 2009; Online April 29, 2010; Revised May 04, 2010; Published June 16, 2010

Plasma processing is an important technology, which provides a capability to modify the material surface through etching, deposition, activation, functionalization, polymerization, etc. In the current plasma process, the reactive area of the sample is relatively large and thus a mask is needed for selectively treating the sample surface. As a result, the whole fabrication process has become more complicated. In this paper, a plasma integrated nanomanufacturing workcell, which consists of a microplasma source and an integrated atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe tip, has been developed to improve the current plasma apparatus design. The miniature microwave plasma discharge applicator is capable of creating a miniature plasma stream with a diameter ranging from 2 mm down to micrometers. Hence, with the new plasma apparatus it has become possible to locally treat a small area of the sample surface and simplify the fabrication process as the photomask is not required. Additionally, the AFM active probe can be precisely positioned on a desired surface to inspect and manipulate nanoobjects. Here, we report the design and implementation of this new system. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the system and show that the microplasma can be used in various applications including localized etching of silicon and diamond and localized patterning of photoresist.

Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Flow chart of the plasma integrated nanomanufacturing workcell

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Figure 2

Schematic structure of the nanomanufacturing workcell

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Figure 3

Control diagram of the AFM active probe

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Figure 4

(a) The re-entrant cavity plasma generator. (b) Photographic image of the plasma manufacturing workcell. Inset: the miniature plasma beam when the system is running. (c) Typical axial density profile of surface wave generated plasmas.

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Figure 5

The computer control interface

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Figure 6

Photographic image of the AFM manufacturing workcell

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Figure 7

A typical voltage-time curve when the active probe moved toward and away from the surface

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Figure 8

Active probe imaging on a standard calibration grid. (a) 2D image and (b) 3D image.

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Figure 9

Pushing a silver nanowire using an active probe as an end effector. (a) Schematic illustration of the pushing process. (b) The AFM image of the nanowire before pushing. (c) The AFM image of the nanowire during the pushing process and arrows indicate the pushing position and direction. (d) The final position of the nanowire after pushing.

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Figure 10

(a) Photographic image of the etched silicon wafer. (b) Cross-section image of the surface profile of the etched silicon wafer.

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Figure 11

A schematic of the RF bias apparatus

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Figure 12

Optical images of the silicon surface exposed after UNCD etching using Ar/O2 plasma

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Figure 13

AFM image of traces of the UNCD film at the boundary of the processed area. Most UNCD film was removed at the left hand side of the image and the right hand side has the remaining UNCD film.

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Figure 14

Absorbance spectrum of the Microposit S1813 photoresist (60)

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Figure 15

Optical image of photoresist exposed to the argon plasma

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Figure 16

Optical image of the photoresist exposed to the neon microplasma. The white line outlining the “S” shape was done with a 30 μm aperture on the microplasma source. The width of the white outline pattern at the indicated location is 38.1 μm.



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