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Research Papers

Droplet Behavior on a Rotating Surface for Atomization-Based Cutting Fluid Application in Micromachining

[+] Author and Article Information
Isha Ghai, Richard E. DeVor, Shiv G. Kapoor, Johnson Samuel

Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801

John Wentz1

Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801

1

Now Assistant Professor of Engineering, University of St. Thomas, St. Paul, MN 55105.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 132(1), 011017 (Feb 03, 2010) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4000859 History: Received August 25, 2009; Revised December 01, 2009; Published February 03, 2010; Online February 03, 2010

The droplet behavior on a rotating surface has been studied to better understand the physics underlying atomized cutting fluid application. To this end, microturning experiments are carried out and the cutting performance evaluated for varying cutting fluids and at different droplet speeds. Microturning experiments indicate that a cutting fluid with low surface tension and low viscosity generates lower cutting temperatures, whereas a fluid with low surface tension and high viscosity generates lower cutting forces. Single-droplet impingement experiments are also conducted on a rotating surface using fluids with different surface tension and viscosity values. Upon impact, the droplet shape is observed to be a function of both the droplet speed and the surface speed. The spreading increases with increased surface speed owing to the tangential momentum added by the rotating surface. Spreading is observed to also increase with a decrease in fluid surface tension and does not change with the fluid viscosity. The evaporation rate is observed to increase for a rotating surface owing to convective heat transfer. Low surface tension and low viscosity are observed to increase the evaporation rate. It is concluded that a fluid with low surface tension and low viscosity is an effective coolant of the cutting zone, whereas a fluid with low surface tension and high viscosity is effective for lubrication.

Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic of the atomization-based cutting fluid application

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Figure 2

Cutting temperature versus droplet speed

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Figure 3

Cutting force versus droplet speed

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Figure 4

Schematic of the single-droplet generator experimental setup

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Figure 5

Experimental setup for the single-droplet impingement study

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Figure 6

(a) Droplet before impact, (b) droplet after impact, and (c) droplet in the steady state

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Figure 7

Time evolution for the DI water droplet on a surface rotating (scale bar=20 μm): (a) surface rotating at 0.8m/s and (b) surface rotating at 2.5 m/s

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Figure 8

Relationship between droplet and surface velocities

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Figure 9

Time evolution for the 12.5% Castrol 6519 droplet on a surface rotating at 0.8 m/s (scale bar=20 μm)

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Figure 10

Droplets of 12.5% Castrol 6519 spreading on a surface moving at (a) 0.8 m/s, (b) 2.5 m/s, and (c) 4.2 m/s

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Figure 11

(a) Droplet of the DI water spreading on a surface moving at 4.2 m/s and (b) droplet of the 12.5% Castrol 6519 spreading on a surface moving at 4.2 m/s

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Figure 12

Dimensionless diameter (D/Do) versus surface tension (fluid viscosity of 1 cP)

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Figure 13

Dimensionless diameter (D/Do) versus viscosity (surface tension of 42 mN/m)

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Figure 14

Evaporation of the droplet of DI water

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Figure 17

Variation in dimensionless volume with time for varying viscosities (surface tension of 42 mN/m)

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Figure 16

Variation in dimensionless volume with time for varying surface tensions (viscosity constant at 1 cP)

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Figure 15

Variation in dimensionless volume with time for the DI water

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