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Research Papers

Waterjet and Water-Air Jet Surface Processing of a Titanium Alloy: A Parametric Evaluation

[+] Author and Article Information
Alex Chillman

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195; Flow International Corporation, Kent, WA 98032

M. Ramulu

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195

M. Hashish

 Flow International Corporation, Kent, WA 98032

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 132(1), 011012 (Jan 25, 2010) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4000837 History: Received July 02, 2009; Revised December 05, 2009; Published January 25, 2010; Online January 25, 2010

High-pressure waterjets have emerged as a viable method for surface texturing, cleaning, and peening of metallic materials. As the material advancements continue, research into alternate surface processing methods must strive to keep pace. One material in particular that has experienced an increase in use in the biomedical and aerospace industries is titanium—due largely to its high strength to weight ratio and corrosion resistance. In this paper, surface preparation of a titanium alloy using waterjet and the water-air jet nozzles at pressures up to 600 MPa was evaluated. A parametric study was performed based on the supply pressure, standoff distance, traverse rate, and applied air flow rate. An analysis of variance was performed on the resulting experimental set to identify the key parameters contributing to the material erosion rates and resulting surface roughness parameters. The supply pressure was found to be the primary contributor to the erosive characteristics of the waterjet followed by the traverse rate. These parameters together govern the total energy per unit area transferred to the workpiece.

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Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Images depicting jet structure for (a) 600 MPa WJ and (b) 600 MPa WAJ with qa=0.16 m3/min operating in air. A fuzzy jet concept can be seen in (c) (scale in inches)

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Figure 2

Optical micrographs of WJ processed surfaces

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Figure 3

Optical micrographs of WAJ processed surfaces

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Figure 4

Erosion width—standoff distance relationship (average, max, min) for specimens prepared using PS=600 MPa, u=90 mm/s, and (a) WJ nozzle (b) WAJ with qa=0.06 m3/min (c) WAJ with qa=0.16 m3/min

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Figure 5

3D images and volume removal analysis for the cases of Ps=600 MPa, h=38.1 mm, and u=90 mm/s using (a)/(b) WJ nozzle and (c)/(d) WAJ with qa=0.06 m3/min

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Figure 6

ER: (a) relative contributions of the process parameters and (b) response surface displaying influence of qa and PS on ER; the response surface was developed for u=30 mm/s and h=25.4 mm

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Figure 7

Contour plots highlighting the erosion rate for the case of 30 mm/s traverse rate and (a) 25.4 mm, (b) 76.2 mm, and (c) 101.6 mm standoff

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Figure 8

Ra: (a) relative contributions of the process parameters and (b) response surface displaying influence of qa and PS on the average roughness; the response surface was created for u=30 mm/s and h=25.4 mm

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Figure 9

Ry: (a) relative contributions of the process parameters and (b) response surface displaying influence of qa and PS; the response surface was created for u=30 mm/s and h=25.4 mm

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Figure 10

Surfaces processed at equivalent power levels with various supply pressures using u=90 mm/s and h=50.8 mm

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Figure 11

Qualitative depiction of waterjet regions with distance from nozzle for processing of Ti–6Al–4V alloys using (a) waterjet, (b) water-air jet with low air flow rate, and (c) water-air jet with high air flow rate

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