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Research Papers

# Focused Ion-Beam Based Nanohole Modeling, Simulation, Fabrication, and Application

[+] Author and Article Information
Jack Zhou

Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104

Guoliang Yang

Department of Physics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 132(1), 011005 (Jan 06, 2010) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4000617 History: Received December 15, 2008; Revised October 27, 2009; Published January 06, 2010; Online January 06, 2010

## Abstract

There are three major steps toward the fabrication of a single-digit nanohole: (1) preparing the free-standing thin film by epitaxial deposition and electrochemical etching, (2) making submicron holes $(0.2–0.02 μm)$ by focused ion beam (FIB), and (3) reducing the hole to less than 10 nm by FIB-induced deposition. One specific aim for this paper is to model, simulate, and control the focused ion-beam machining process to fabricate holes that can reach a single-digit nanometer scale on solid-state thin films. Preliminary work has been done on the thin film (30 nm in thickness) preparation, submicron hole fabrication, and ion-beam-induced deposition, and the results are presented.

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## Figures

Figure 1

Focused ion-beam machine structure

Figure 2

Sputter model (39)

Figure 3

Redeposition model (39). PiPi+1 is ion-beam sputtering area on the substrate and PjPj+1 is the sputtered atoms flying back to redeposit on the substrate surface. They both are on the x-z plane.

Figure 4

Principle of the FIB-induced deposition (41)

Figure 5

Illustration of the FIB-induced deposition process to shrink a submicron hole to a single-digit nanometer

Figure 6

Gallium ion to silicon substrate (30 keV); unit: angstrom

Figure 7

FIB simulation results: (a) gallium ion trajectories and (b) recoils of substrate atoms. The scale length in x and y directions is 300 Å.

Figure 8

The procedure to make nanoholes

Figure 9

Method of making a free-standing film

Figure 10

Microfabricated silicon nitride thin film: (a) dimensions and two views, and (b) SEM image from the top

Figure 11

Setup for DNA and RNA studies

Figure 12

(a) Holes made using FIB milling with different parameter settings (ion-beam current=10 pA and 30 pA, and the milling time was changed in the range 0.5–7.0 s). (b) Two rows of holes with square and circle shapes and different sizes. (c) One column of the same diameter holes. (d) Two holes originally had the same size; after FIB-induced deposition one hole size was reduced.

Figure 13

(a)–(d) show a circular hole fill-in, closed and opened again

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