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Research Papers

Development of a Novel Artifact as a Reference for Gear Pitch Measuring Instruments

[+] Author and Article Information
Yohan Kondo

Department of Mechanical and Environmental Informatics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552, Japankondo.y.ae@m.titech.ac.jp

Kazuyuki Sasajima

Department of Mechanical and Environmental Informatics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552, Japan

Sonko Osawa

Dimensional Standards Section, National Metrology Institute of Japan, AIST, Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8563, Japansonko.osawa@aist.go.jp

Osamu Sato

Dimensional Standards Section, National Metrology Institute of Japan, AIST, Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8563, Japan

Masaharu Komori

Department of Mechanical Engineering and Science, Kyoto University, Yoshidahonmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto-shi, Kyoto 606-8501, Japankomorim@me.kyoto-u.ac.jp

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 131(5), 051016 (Sep 25, 2009) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4000104 History: Received November 17, 2008; Revised July 30, 2009; Published September 25, 2009

The pitch accuracy of a gear is graded on the order of 0.1μm in ISO 1328-1; therefore, it is necessary for gear measuring instruments (GMIs) to be able to measure gears with the required high accuracy. GMIs are evaluated by measuring a calibrated gear or a gearlike artifact. It is, however, difficult to obtain a measurement uncertainty of less than 0.1μm. The reason for this difficulty is that a gear artifact has a form error and surface roughness, and that the measurement position on the gear face differs slightly from the calibrated position. In view of this situation, we propose a novel multiball artifact (MBA), which is composed of equally spaced pitch balls, a centering ball, and a datum plane. The pitch balls are assumed to act as gear teeth by calibrating the angular pitch between the centers of each pitch ball. The centering ball and the datum plane are used to set a reference axis of the virtual gear. We manufactured an MBA with the pitch balls arranged on a curvic coupling. The angular pitch deviation between the centers of each pitch ball was calibrated using a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and adopting the multiple-orientation technique. A master gear was also calibrated for comparison. The measurement uncertainty for the cumulative angular pitch deviation was 0.45 arc sec for the MBA and 1.58 arc sec for the master gear. The MBA could be calibrated with small uncertainty compared with the master gear. After the calibration, a virtual gear of the MBA was built using the calibration value. The virtual gear was measured using the gear-measuring software on the CMM. The measurement value was equal within the range of uncertainty of calibration value. It is verified that the superiority of the MBA to the gear artifact is due to the following reasons: (1) The balls can be manufactured with an accuracy of several tens of nanometers. (2) The calibrated result for the MBA is almost independent of a probe-positioning error because the centers of each pitch ball can be measured at multiple points. (3) In setting the reference axis, the gear artifact generally uses a datum cylinder, in contrast, the MBA uses more accurate ball.

Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

MBA proposed as a new reference for GMIs: (a) photo and (b) schematic view

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Figure 2

Schematic view of pitch balls: (a) Top view of pitch balls and (b) horizontal view of pitch balls

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Figure 3

Pitch measurement of MBA using a gear checker with rotary table

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Figure 4

Multiple-orientation technique: (a) first orientation and (b) second orientation

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Figure 5

Overview of MBA measurement on CMM

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Figure 6

Measurement results for angular pitch deviation of MBA: (a) cumulative angular pitch deviation: Mij and Δθ¯i and (b) single angular pitch deviation: Mtij and Δθ¯ti

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Figure 7

Difference between Mij and Δθ¯i in each orientation

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Figure 8

Systematic error: Ek′j

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Figure 9

Nonsystematic error

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Figure 10

Overview of calibration of a master gear

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Figure 11

Measurement results for angular pitch deviation of a master gear: (a) cumulative angular pitch deviation: Mij and Δθ¯i and (b) single angular pitch deviation: Mtij and Δθ¯ti

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Figure 12

Systematic error: Ek′j

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Figure 13

Nonsystematic error

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Figure 14

Virtual gear of MBA

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Figure 15

Pitch deviation of virtual gear: (a) cumulative pitch deviation: Fpli and Fpri and (b) single pitch deviation: fpli and fpri

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Figure 16

Difference between measured pitch deviation and the calibrated value: (a) Cumulative pitch deviation: Fpli and Fpri and (b) single pitch deviation: fpli and fpri

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Figure 17

Nonsystematic error

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