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Research Papers

Theoretical and FE Analysis of Ultrasonic Welding of Aluminum Alloy 3003

[+] Author and Article Information
A. Siddiq, E. Ghassemieh

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD, UK

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 131(4), 041007 (Jul 13, 2009) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3160583 History: Received November 27, 2007; Revised November 16, 2008; Published July 13, 2009

Ultrasonic welding (consolidation) process is a rapid manufacturing process that is used to join thin layers of metal at low temperature and low energy consumption. Experimental results have shown that ultrasonic welding is a combination of both surface (friction) and volume (plasticity) softening effects. In the presented work, an attempt has been made to simulate the ultrasonic welding of metals by taking into account these effects (surface and volume). A phenomenological material model has been proposed, which incorporates these two effects (i.e., surface and volume). The thermal softening due to friction and ultrasonic (acoustic) softening has been included in the proposed material model. For surface effects, a friction law with variable coefficient of friction that is dependent on contact pressure, slip, temperature, and number of cycles has been derived from experimental friction tests. The results of the thermomechanical analyses of ultrasonic welding of aluminum alloy have been presented. The goal of this work is to study the effects of ultrasonic welding process parameters, such as applied load, amplitude of ultrasonic oscillation, and velocity of welding sonotrode on the friction work at the weld interface. The change in the friction work at the weld interface has been explained on the basis of softening (thermal and acoustic) of the specimen during the ultrasonic welding process. In the end, a comparison between experimental and simulated results has been presented, showing a good agreement.

Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Ultrasonic welding specimen, (a) finite element model, and (b) geometry of ultrasonic welding specimen (side view)

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Figure 2

(a) Comparison between experimental and simulated uniaxial stress-strain curves. (b) Comparison between experimental and simulated initial yielding as a function of temperature. (c) Effect of ultrasonic energy per unit time on initial yielding

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Figure 3

Ratio of coefficient of friction after each cycle to static coefficient of friction as a function of number of cycles (26)

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Figure 4

Comparison between friction model and experiments (26) for a contact pressure=50 MPa and stress amplitude=193 MPa

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Figure 5

Coefficient of friction as a function of temperature (experiments and friction model)

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Figure 6

Coefficient of friction (measured) between sonotrode (steel) and foil (aluminum alloy)

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Figure 7

Friction work at foil/substrate interface, velocity=27.8 mm/s

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Figure 8

Ultrasonic power transferred to the foil along the thickness direction

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Figure 9

Friction work between foil/substrate interface as a function of velocity of sonotrode (oscillation amplitude=8.4 μm)

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Figure 10

Friction work between foil/substrate interface as a function of velocity of sonotrode (applied load=155 MPa)

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Figure 11

Equivalent plastic strain in the foil at foil/sonotrode interface (amplitude=8.4 μm; velocity=27.8 mm/s)

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Figure 12

Equivalent plastic strain in substrate and foil at foil/substrate interface (amplitude=8.4 μm; velocity=27.8 mm/s)

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Figure 13

Equivalent plastic strains v/s number of ultrasonic cycles (amplitude=8.4 μm; velocity=27.8 mm/s)

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Figure 14

Temperature in the weld specimen for three different applied loadings (amplitude=8.4 μm; velocity=27.8 mm/s)

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Figure 15

Comparison of temperature adjacent to the weld area (experimental and simulations)

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Figure 16

Friction work and experimental fracture energy as a function of amplitude of ultrasonic oscillation (velocity=34.5 mm/s; load=175 MPa)

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Figure 17

Friction work and experimental fracture energy as a function of amplitude of ultrasonic oscillation (velocity=34.5 mm/s; load=155 MPa)

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