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Research Papers

Characteristics of Residual Stress Profiles in Hard Turned Versus Ground Surfaces With and Without a White Layer

[+] Author and Article Information
A. W. Warren

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487

Y. B. Guo1

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487yguo@eng.ua.edu

1

Corresponding author.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 131(4), 041004 (Jul 08, 2009) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3159046 History: Received July 31, 2008; Revised April 24, 2009; Published July 08, 2009

Hard turning and grinding are precision processes in many cases for manufacturing various mechanical products. Product performance is highly dependent on the process induced residual stress. However, the basic differences in residual stress profiles generated by hard turning and grinding with and without the presence of a thermal white layer have not been well understood. This study aims to compare basic characteristics of the residual stress profiles using an extensive residual stress measurement for five surface types: hard turned fresh, hard turned with a white layer, ground fresh, ground with a white layer, and as heat treated. The X-ray diffraction data revealed distinct differences in the residual stress profiles for the five surface types. Hard turning with a sharp cutting tool generates a unique “hook” shaped residual stress profile characterized by compressive residual stress at the surface and maximum compressive residual stress in the subsurface, while “gentle” grinding only generates maximum compressive residual stress at the surface. The depth of compressive residual stress in the subsurface by hard turning is much larger than that by grinding. The high hertz pressure induced by the cutting tool in turning is the determining factor for the differences in residual stress. High tensile residual stress associates with the existence of a turned or a ground white layer. The coupled effects of high hertz pressure and rapid temperature change induced by tool wear play an important role in the resultant tensile residual stress. In addition, residual stress by grinding is more scattered than that by turning. Compared with the deterministic influence of machining process on the magnitudes and profiles of residual stress, the effect of heat treatment is minor.

Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Topics: Stress , Turning
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Figures

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Figure 2

Orientations of measured residual stresses

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Figure 3

Benchmark curve of etched depth versus time by 20% nital etching

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Figure 4

Schematic of diffraction planes parallel to the surface and at angle ϕ and ψ

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Figure 7

Residual normal stress profiles in the cutting direction

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Figure 10

Effect of the linear versus elliptical fitting on residual normal stress profiles in the feed direction by hard turning

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Figure 11

Effect of the linear versus elliptical fitting on residual normal stress profiles in the cutting direction by hard turning

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Figure 12

Effect of the linear versus elliptical fitting on residual shear stress profiles by hard turning

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Figure 13

Effect of the linear versus elliptical fitting on residual normal stress profiles in the feed direction by grinding

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Figure 14

Effect of the linear versus elliptical fitting on residual normal stress profiles in the cutting direction by grinding

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Figure 15

Effect of the linear versus elliptical fitting on residual shear stress profiles by grinding

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Figure 16

Repeatability of measured residual stresses for the TF surfaces

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Figure 17

Repeatability of measured residual stresses for the GF surfaces

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Figure 1

Cross sections of the machined surfaces (a) HTF, (b) GF, (c) HTWL, and (d) GWL

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Figure 6

Residual normal stress profiles in the feed direction

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Figure 5

Linear and elliptical fitting for d versus sin2 ψ in residual stress analysis

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Figure 8

Residual shear stress profiles in the subsurface

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Figure 9

Elliptical fitting for ψ splitting due to the presence of shear stresses

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