Research Papers

Pressure Welding of Thin Sheet Metals: Experimental Investigations and Analytical Modeling

[+] Author and Article Information
Sasawat Mahabunphachai

Department of Mechanical Engineering, NSFI/UCR Center for Precision Forming, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284; Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109

Muammer Koç

Department of Mechanical Engineering, NSFI/UCR Center for Precision Forming, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284

Jun Ni

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109

matweb.com and hpmetals.com.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 131(4), 041003 (Jul 07, 2009) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3160597 History: Received March 04, 2008; Revised January 27, 2009; Published July 07, 2009

Emerging applications, such as fuel cell, fuel processor, heat exchanger, microreactors, etc., require joining of thin metallic plates in confined places with small dimensions and minimal damage to the surrounding areas. In this study, the feasibility and modeling of pressure welding (solid state bonding) process are investigated, specifically for bonding of thin sheet metals. The effects of material type (e.g., copper, nickel, and stainless steel) and initial plate thickness (51254μm) as well as process conditions (e.g., welding pressure and temperature, 25300°C) on the minimum welding pressure and the final bond strength are experimentally studied. A pressure welding apparatus was developed for testing of different materials and process conditions. Based on the experimental results, the effects of material and process conditions on the final bond quality are characterized. At room temperature, copper and nickel blanks were successfully bonded, while stainless steel blanks could only be joined at elevated temperature levels (150°C and 300°C). The material type (i.e., strength) and thickness were shown to have significant impact on the welding pressure; in that more pressure is required to bond the blanks with higher strength or thinner. To reduce the required welding pressure, the process can be carried out at elevated temperature levels. In this study, the bond strength of the welded blanks was characterized with uniaxial testing. The tensile test results showed that the bond strength could be increased by increasing the welding pressure or temperature. However, the increase in bond strength by increasing the welding pressure was shown to have an optimal point, after which the bond strength would decrease with further increase in pressure. This critical pressure value was found to be dependent on the material and process conditions. In addition, bond formation mechanisms for different materials were studied through microscopic analyses. The microscopy images of the weld spots showed that for a successful bonding to take place, the contaminant layers at the surfaces must be removed or broken to allow the virgin metal underneath to be extruded through. The metallic bonds only form at these locations where both surfaces are free of contaminant layers. Finally, a model for bond strength prediction in pressure welding was developed and validated. This model includes the sheet thickness parameter, which is shown to be a critical factor in bonding thin sheet metals with the sheet thickness in the range of a few hundred micrometers.

Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.



Grahic Jump Location
Figure 1

Experimental apparatus for cold and warm pressure welding

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 2

Calculation of weld area

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 3

Tensile test of bonded specimens under shear loading

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 4

Effect of material type and thickness on the minimum welding pressure and its variation

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 5

Effect of welding pressure on the bond strength under shear loading (YS is the yield strength of the material)

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 6

Effect of welding temperature on thickness reduction and bond strength

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 7

Microscopic images at the bonding sites

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 8

Calculation of the deformed area, A

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 9

Validation of the proposed model using (a) the experimental data in this study and (b) from the literature in Ref. 15



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In