Research Papers

Development of Metal Embedded Microsensors by Diffusion Bonding and Testing in Milling Process

[+] Author and Article Information
Xudong Cheng

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1513 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706

Xiaochun Li

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1513 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706xcli@engr.wisc.edu

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 130(6), 061010 (Nov 04, 2008) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3006318 History: Received August 30, 2007; Revised August 12, 2008; Published November 04, 2008

This paper presents a new method to embed microthin film sensors into metallic structures by diffusion bonding. The experiments were carried out using AISI 304 stainless steel substrates with a bonding temperature of 800°C and a pressure of 4 MPa, which the developed thin film system was able to sustain. The success of embedding was validated by sensor functionality tests and metallurgical characterization. This sensor embedding method can be extended to other engineering metallic materials. To demonstrate the applications of the embedded microsensors, a PdCr thin film strain gauge array that is suitable for in situ measuring of temperatures and strains in manufacturing processes was designed and fabricated for testing in the vertical end milling process. Time- and spatial-resolved signals were obtained during the milling process. The signals were decomposed to a static part, which apparently resulted from temperature changes, and the dynamic part, which resulted from dynamic strains induced by material removal during cutting. The milling tests demonstrated the ability of using this method to measure real-time temperatures and strains within the workpiece, which will be very valuable to the fundamental understanding of various manufacturing processes. It can also be used for bench marking numerical modeling and simulations.

Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Schematic of structures of embedded microthin film sensors

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Figure 2

Sensor fabrication and embedding process

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Figure 3

Diffusion bonding thermal cycle

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Figure 4

SEM and EDS of the thin film system after diffusion bonding

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Figure 5

Seven-step layer by layer vertical milling test on the workpiece with embedded TFSG array

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Figure 6

Sensor design: (a) detailed drawing of sensor design and (b) schematic of the sensor placement in relation to the diameter of the cutting tool

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Figure 7

Pictures of a sample prepared for the milling test

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Figure 8

Schematic of the static response calibration of TFSG

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Figure 9

Wheatstone quarter bridge circuit

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Figure 10

TFSG calibration: Static response (Nos. 1–5 indicate five different amounts of loading)

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Figure 11

TFSG calibration: TFhermal response

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Figure 12

Pictures of a sample after the milling test

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Figure 13

Typical signal pattern during vertical milling: (a) milling from 600 μm to 500 μm above the sensor and (b) decomposed signal: blue: below 1 Hz and green: 1–50Hz

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Figure 14

Typical signal pattern during vertical milling with a strong 1–6 Hz component: (a) signal from 430 μm to 330 μm above the sensor, blue: raw data and green: static component (<1 Hz); (b) decomposed signal: 1–6 Hz; (c) decomposed signal: >6 Hz

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Figure 15

Distribution of the (a) peak temperature and (b) dynamic strain from the milling test (horizontal axis indicating the vertical distance from the cutting tool to the sensor; the horizontal distance from each sensor to the cutting center is indicated in Fig. 6)




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