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Research Papers

Multiphase Finite Element Modeling of Machining Unidirectional Composites: Prediction of Debonding and Fiber Damage

[+] Author and Article Information
Chinmaya R. Dandekar, Yung C. Shin

Center for Laser-Based Manufacturing, School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 130(5), 051016 (Sep 11, 2008) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2976146 History: Received November 23, 2007; Revised June 30, 2008; Published September 11, 2008

A multiphase finite element model using the commercial finite element package ABAQUS/EXPLICIT is developed for simulating the orthogonal machining of unidirectional fiber reinforced composite materials. The composite materials considered for this study are a glass fiber reinforced epoxy and a tube formed carbon fiber reinforced epoxy. The effects of varying the fiber orientation angle and tool rake angle on the cutting force and damage during machining are considered for the glass fiber reinforced epoxy. In the case of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy, only the effect of fiber orientation on the measured cutting force and damage during machining is considered. Two major damage phenomena are predicted: debonding at the fiber-matrix interface and fiber pullout. In the multiphase approach, the fiber and matrix are modeled as continuum elements with isotropic properties separated by an interfacial layer, while the tool is modeled as a rigid body. The cohesive zone modeling approach is used for the interfacial layer to simulate the extent of debonding below the work surface. Bulk deformation and shear failure are considered in the matrix for both the models and the glass fiber. A brittle failure criterion is used for the carbon fiber specimen and is coded in FORTRAN as a user defined material (VUMAT). The brittle failure of the carbon fibers is modeled using the Marigo model for brittle failure. For validation purposes, simulation results of the multiphase approach are compared with experimental measurements of the cutting force and damage. The model is successful in predicting cutting forces and damage at the front and rear faces with respect to the fiber orientation. A successful prediction of fiber pullout is also demonstrated in this paper.

Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 8

Damage observations in the machining of 90 deg fiber orientation CFRP specimens at a cutting speed of 1 m/s

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Figure 9

Damage observations in the machining of 120 deg fiber orientation CFRP specimens at a cutting speed of 1 m/s

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Figure 10

Simulated von Mises stress distribution during the machining of a 90 deg fiber orientation with a 5 deg rake angle tool

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Figure 11

Simulated von Mises stress distribution during the machining of a 120 deg fiber orientation with a 5 deg rake angle tool

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Figure 12

Internal damage during orthogonal machining of GFRP during machining with a 5 deg rake angle tool, in comparison with experimental measurements (10)

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Figure 13

Simulated von Mises stress distribution during the machining of a 90 deg fiber orientation with a 10 deg rake angle tool

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Figure 14

Force per unit width as a function of fiber orientation during the machining of GFRP with a 5 deg rake angle tool, in comparison with experimental measurements (10)

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Figure 15

Force per unit width as a function of rake angle during the machining of a 90 deg fiber oriented GFRP with a 5 deg rake angle tool

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Figure 16

Simulated von Mises stress distribution during the machining of a 90 deg fiber orientation carbon fiber reinforced epoxy with a 5 deg rake angle tool

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Figure 7

Damage observations in the machining of 45 deg fiber orientation CFRP specimens at a cutting speed of 1 m/s

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Figure 6

Experimental cutting force per unit width results for machining CFRP specimens at a cutting speed of 1 m/s at varying fiber orientations

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Figure 19

Comparison of experimental and simulated cutting forces per unit width for CFRP specimens machined at a cutting speed of 1 m/s with varying fiber orientations

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Figure 17

Simulated von Mises stress distribution during the machining of 120 deg fiber orientation carbon fiber specimens with a 5 deg rake angle tool

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Figure 18

Debonding depth during the orthogonal machining of CFRP with a 5 deg rake angle tool at a cutting speed of 1 m/s

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Figure 5

5 Cutting forces as a function of the length of cut for machining 90 deg fiber orientation CFRP specimens at a feed rate of 0.1 mm and a cutting speed of 1 m/s

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Figure 4

Simulation procedure for implementing the user subroutine

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Figure 3

Cutting mechanisms in machining GFRP (19)

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Figure 2

Orthogonal machining of GFRP composites (6)

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Figure 1

Representative mesh for a 90 deg fiber orientation

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