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Research Papers

Virtual Simulation and Optimization of Milling Operations—Part I: Process Simulation

[+] Author and Article Information
S. Doruk Merdol

Manufacturing Automation Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of British Columbia, 6250 Applied Science Lane, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canadadmerdol@mech.ubc.ca

Yusuf Altintas

Manufacturing Automation Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of British Columbia, 6250 Applied Science Lane, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canadaaltintas@mech.ubc.ca

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 130(5), 051004 (Aug 14, 2008) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2927434 History: Received June 27, 2006; Revised March 18, 2007; Published August 14, 2008

The ultimate aim of the manufacturing is to produce the first part correctly and most economically on the production floor. This paper presents computationally efficient mathematical models to predict milling process state variables, such as chip load, force, torque, and cutting edge engagement at discrete cutter locations. Process states are expressed explicitly as a function of helical cutting edge-part engagement, cutting coefficient, and feed rate. Cutters with arbitrary geometry are modeled parametrically, and the intersection of their helical cutting edges with workpiece features are evaluated either analytically or numerically depending on the geometric complexity. Process variables are computed for each cutting edge-part engagement feature and summed to predict the total force, torque, and power generated at each feed rate interval. The proposed algorithms are experimentally verified in simulating milling of a gear box cover, and integrated to the virtual milling process system, which is capable of predicting cutting forces, torque, power, and vibrations within CAM environment.

Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

(a) Generalized tool geometry (16); (b) angle convention

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Figure 2

Mechanics and kinematics of 2.5D milling

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Figure 3

Cutter-workpiece intersection, CEF mapping

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Figure 5

Rectangular CEF: (a) possible intersection cases; (b) parameter definition for CEFs (Case 1)

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Figure 6

Calculation of integration boundaries for general end mills

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Figure 7

(a) Planar machining with a ball end mill; (b) example CEF for ball end milling

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Figure 15

(a) Face milling, (b) right side profiling, (c) top hole helical milling, and (d) middle hole helical milling

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Figure 16

Face milling. (a) measured, and (b) simulated cutting forces

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Figure 17

Profile milling: (a) measured and (b) simulated cutting forces

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Figure 18

Top hole helical milling: (a) measured, and (b) simulated cutting forces

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Figure 19

Middle hole helical milling: (a) measured, and (b) simulated cutting forces

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Figure 14

Multiple immersion milling, engagement map, simulated versus measured cutting forces

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Figure 13

Flute recut example, same depth, different helix angles

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Figure 12

Cutting region representation

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Figure 11

(a) Low helix cutter (four fluted) with small depth of cut; (b) high helix cutter (two fluted) with large depth of cut; (inset) chip geometry

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Figure 10

Root bracketing

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Figure 9

Change of integration boundaries over time for the most general case

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Figure 8

Immersion angle (CEF boundary) calculation for general end mills

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