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Research Papers

Development of a Computer Simulation Model for Blowing Glass Containers

[+] Author and Article Information
C. G. Giannopapa

Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlandsc.g.giannopapa@tue.nl

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 130(4), 041003 (Jul 08, 2008) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2951925 History: Received December 13, 2006; Revised November 21, 2007; Published July 08, 2008

In glass container manufacturing (e.g., production of glass bottles and jars) an important process step is the blowing of the final product. This process is fast and is characterized by large deformations and the interaction of a hot glass fluid that gets into contact with a colder metal, the mould. The objective of this paper is to create a robust finite-element model to be used for industrial purposes that accurately captures the blowing step of glass containers. The model should be able to correctly represent the flow of glass and the energy exchange during the process. For tracking the geometry of the deforming inner and outer interface of glass, level set technique is applied on structured and unstructured fixed mesh. At each time step the coupled problem of flow and energy exchange is solved by the model. Here the flow problem is only solved for the domain enclosed by the mould, whereas in the energy calculations, the mould domain is also taken into account in the computations. For all the calculations the material parameters (like viscosity) are based on the glass position, i.e., the position of the level sets. The velocity distribution, as found from this solution procedure, is then used to update the two level sets by means of solving a convection equation. A reinitialization algorithm is applied after each time step in order to let the level sets reattain the property of being a signed distance function. The model is validated by several examples focusing on both the overall behavior (such as conservation of mass and energy) and the local behavior of the flow (such as glass-mould contact) and temperature distributions for different mesh size, time step, level set settings and material parameters.

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Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Press-blow process

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Figure 2

Fast marching methods

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Figure 3

Fast marching method reinitialization

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Figure 9

Quarter circle glass blowing with temperature gradient at inflow: (a) glass area propagation: glass area propagation is denoted in blue and air domain in red and (b) temperature profiles

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Figure 10

Two dimensional glass blowing: (a) glass area propagation: glass area propagation is denoted in blue and air domain in red and (b) temperature profiles

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Figure 5

Quarter circle glass blowing with even temperature distribution at inflow: (a) glass area propagation: glass area propagation is denoted in blue and air domain in red and (b) temperature profiles

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Figure 6

Comparison of volume conservation for structured and unstructured grids with mesh sizes of 20×10, 41×21, 81×41, and 160×80 in the circular example

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Figure 7

Comparison of volume conservation between Euler implicit and Crank–Nicholson for different time steps: 1×10−1, 5×10−2, 1×10−2, 1×10−3, and 1×10−4

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Figure 8

Comparison of volume conservation between classical upwind scheme and modified upwind scheme in the circular example

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