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Technical Briefs

Development of Cutting Tool With Built-In Thin Film Thermocouples for Measuring High Temperature Fields in Metal Cutting Processes

[+] Author and Article Information
Jun Shinozuka

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ibaraki University, 4-12-1 Nakanarusawa, Hitachi, Ibaraki, 316-8511, Japanjshinozu@mx.ibaraki.ac.jp

Ali Basti

Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Guilan, P.O. Box 41635-3756, Rasht, 41996-13769, Iran

Toshiyuki Obikawa

Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 153–8505, Japan

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 130(3), 034501 (May 02, 2008) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2823066 History: Received March 31, 2007; Revised October 26, 2007; Published May 02, 2008

In order to measure temperature fields on tool face during cutting, a cutting tool with built-in thin film thermocouples (TFTs) has been devised. The TFTs composed of a nickel and nichrome thin films were fabricated on the rake face near the cutting edge of a sintered alumina tool insert using a physical vapor deposition and photolithography technique. An empirical formula that shows Seebeck coefficient of a TFT depends on electrical resistance of the TFT circuit was established. Three different types of tools in number and size of TFTs were developed and temperature fields on the rake face in cutting of a plain carbon steel S45C were measured. The results of the cutting thermometry experiment reveal that the devised tool with built-in three TFTs can measure temperature fields on the tool face and can sense slight change in cutting situation.

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Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Three types of the tools with built-in TFTs developed. (a) Whole view of three types of the tools with built-in TFTs developed, (b-1) Type 1, (b-2) Type 2, (b-3) Type 3, and (b) magnified view around the hot junctions.

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Figure 2

Thermoelectricity circuit of a TFT on tool insert

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Figure 3

Apparatus for temperature calibration test of TFTs

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Figure 4

Influence of electrical resistance upon Seebeck coefficient. Open circles indicate experimental data of TFT, while triangles indicate those of wire thermocouple. Lines are obtained by the least squares method. (a) Characteristic of Seebeck coefficient for wire thermocouple, (b) characteristic of Seebeck coefficient for TFT.

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Figure 5

Apparatus for cutting thermometry experiment

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Figure 6

Typical example of change in temperature measured with a TFT. Cutting conditions: workpiece S45C plain carbon steel, cutting speed 1.67m∕s, feed rate 0.10mm∕rev, width of cut 1.0mm, rake angle −5deg, clearance angle 6deg, dry. Temperature of TFT #2 of Type 2 is shown. Width of the TFT was 35μm. Temperatures of TFTs #1 and #2 at cutting times 0.5s and 2.0s are shown in Fig. 9. (a) Change in cutting forces with cutting time. (b) Change in temperature with cutting time.

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Figure 7

Changes in cutting forces and temperatures in the incipient stage of cutting. Cutting conditions are the same as those in Fig. 6 except for feed rate 0.05mm∕rev. The tool type is Type 3. TFT #1 was partly inside of the tool-chip contact region, while TFTs #2 and #3 were outside of the region. (a) Change in cutting forces with cutting time. (b) Change in temperatures with cutting time.

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Figure 8

Influence of number of TFTs upon temperatures measured on tool rake face. Cutting conditions are the same as those in Fig. 7. Boxes indicate temperatures measured with TFTs. Solid curve indicates temperatures on the rake face simulated using the FDA cutting simulator. Dash-dotted line indicates the chip leaving point measured. Thick and light color bars indicate the temperatures at cutting times 0.5s and 2.0s, respectively. (a) Type 1, (b) Type 2, (c) Type 3.

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Figure 9

Temperatures on tool rake face measured with TFTs with various widths. Cutting conditions were the same as those in Fig. 6. The widths of TFTs of Tool A were 35μm, while those of Tool B were 170μm. Boxes indicate temperatures measured with TFTs. Solid curve indicates temperatures on the rake face simulated using the FDA cutting simulator. Dash-dotted line indicates the chip leaving point measured. Thick and light color bars indicate the temperatures at cutting times 0.5s and 2.0s, respectively.

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