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Research Papers

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Low Output Power Laser Bending of Thin Steel Sheets

[+] Author and Article Information
Vicente Stevens

Diego Celentano1

Jorge Ramos-Grez, Magdalena Walczak

Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica y Metalúrgica,  Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Santiago, Chile

1

Corresponding author.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 134(3), 031010 (May 14, 2012) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4005807 History: Revised November 03, 2005; Received May 13, 2011; Published May 14, 2012; Online May 14, 2012

This work presents an experimental and numerical analysis of a low output power single-pass laser forming process applied to thin stainless steel sheets. To this end, the proposed methodology consists in four stages respectively devoted to material characterization via tensile testing, estimation of thermal boundary conditions present in laser forming, realization of laser bending tests for two sets of operating variables, and finally, numerical simulation of this process carried out with a coupled thermomechanical finite element formulation accounting for large plastic strains, temperature-dependent material properties and convection–radiation phenomena. The numerical analysis, focused on the description of the evolution of the thermomechanical material response, is found to provide a satisfactory experimental validation of the final bending angle for two laser forming cases with different operating variables. In both cases, the predicted high temperature gradients occurring across the sample thickness show that the deformation process is mainly governed by the thermal gradient mechanism.

Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Laser bending: (a) TGM and (b) BM

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Figure 2

General layout of the tensile test with temperature control

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Figure 3

Sample used for the tensile test

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Figure 4

Tensile test at: (a) 100 °C and (b) 800 °C

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Figure 5

Average yield strength versus temperature curve obtained experimentally

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Figure 6

Average Young’s modulus versus temperature curve obtained experimentally

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Figure 7

Average hardening coefficient versus temperature curve obtained experimentally

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Figure 8

Experimental and numerical cooling curves of a uniformly heated plate with initial temperature of 400 °C

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Figure 9

Finite element mesh used in the thermal simulation to estimate the absorption coefficient

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Figure 10

Experimental and simulation results at the center of the sample for a laser power of 60 W

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Figure 11

Experimental setup of low output power laser forming

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Figure 12

Bent AISI 302 stainless steel sample after the process

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Figure 13

(a) Finite element mesh, (b) detail of the mesh transitions, and (c) reference frame

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Figure 14

Thermomechanical properties of AISI 302 stainless steel used in the simulations

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Figure 15

Temperature evolution in five equally spaced points located along the laser beam path (z = 0 mm and z = 25 mm correspond to the beginning and end of such trajectory, respectively) for (a) case 1 and (b) case 2

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Figure 16

Temperature evolutions in four equally spaced points located along the sheet thickness at the midlength of the laser beam path (y = 0 mm and y = 0.3 mm correspond to the bottom and top surfaces, respectively) for (a) case 1 and (b) case 2

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Figure 17

Temperature, effective plastic strain, pressure and von Mises stress evolutions in a point located at the top surface of the sheet and the midlength of the laser beam path for (a) case 1 and (b) case 2

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Figure 18

Effective plastic strain evolution at the top and bottom surfaces of the sheet and the midlength of the laser beam path for (a) case 1 and (b) case 2

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Figure 19

Vertical displacement evolutions in three equally spaced points located along the free edge of the sheet for (a) case 1 and (b) case 2

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