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Research Papers

Modeling Three-Dimensional Plasma Arc in Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

[+] Author and Article Information
G. Xu, H. L. Tsai

 Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology (Formerly University of Missouri-Rolla), 1870 Miner Circle, Rolla, MO 65409

J. Hu1

 Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bridgeport, Bridgeport, CT 06604jjhu@bridgeport.edu

1

Corresponding author.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 134(3), 031001 (Apr 25, 2012) (13 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4006091 History: Received June 07, 2010; Revised December 13, 2011; Published April 24, 2012; Online April 25, 2012

This article presents a three-dimensional (3D) mathematical model for the plasma arc in gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). The velocity, pressure, temperature, electric potential, current density, and magnetic field of the plasma arc are calculated by solving the mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations coupled with electromagnetic equations. The predicted results were compared with the published experimental data and good agreements were achieved. This 3D model can be used to study a nonaxisymmetric arc that may be caused by the presence of nonaxisymmetric weld pools, joint configurations, and perturbations such as an external magnetic field. This study also provides a method to calculate 3D arc pressure, heat flux, and current density on the surface of the weld pool which, if coupled with a weld pool model, will become a complete model of GTAW.

Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

A schematic representation of a GTAW system

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Figure 2

Temperature-dependent thermophysical properties of argon (Ar): (a) viscosity, (b) thermal conductivity, (c) electric conductivity, and (d) specific heat

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Figure 3

Axial temperature as a function of the distance to the anode of 10 mm, 200 A arcs with 0.4 mm, 0.3 mm, and 0.2 mm axial mesh

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Figure 4

Comparison between predicted and experimental isotherms of the 10 mm arc with different welding currents: (a) 300 A, (b) 200 A, and (c) 100 A

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Figure 5

Axial distributions as a function of the distance to the anode of 10 mm arcs at 100 A, 200 A, and 300 A: (a) temperature, (b) electric potential, (c) axial velocity, (d) axial pressure, and (e) current density

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Figure 6

Vector fields at the symmetric plane (y = 0) of the 10 mm and 200 A arc: (a) velocity, (b) current density, and (c) electromagnetic force

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Figure 7

Distributions at anode surface of the 10 mm, 200 A arc: (a) arc pressure, (b) current density Jz , and (c) heat flux

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Figure 8

Comparison between predicted and experimental current density Jz at the anode surface of the 6.3 mm, 200 A arc

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Figure 9

Magnetic field vectors at z = 0.1 mm (just above anode) and at z = 9 mm (1 mm below cathode) for the 10 mm, 200 A arc

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Figure 10

Comparison between predicted and experimental heat flux at the anode surface of the 6.3 mm, 200 A arc

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Figure 11

Temperature contours and velocity vector fields of V-groove butt weld of the 6.3 mm, 200 A arc: (a) temperature contours at the y = 0 plane (along the groove), (b) temperature contours at the x = 0 plane (across the groove), (c) velocity vector fields at the y = 0 plane, and (d) velocity vector field at the x = 0 plane

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Figure 12

Anode heat flux distribution and current density vector field near the V-groove butt weld at the plane x = 0 (across the groove) for the 6.3 mm, 200 A arc: (a) anode heat flux distribution and (b) current density vector field

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Figure 13

A schematic representation of arc deflection under an external magnetic field

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Figure 14

Distributions at the symmetric plane (y = 0) under a 7 G external magnetic field of the 10 mm, 200 A arc: (a) temperature contour, (b) velocity vector, (c) current density vector, and (d) electromagnetic force vector

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Figure 15

Temperature contours at the symmetric plane (y = 0) under different external magnetic fields of the 10 mm, 200 A arc: (a) 15 G and (b) 20 G

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Figure 16

Temperature distributions at the anode surface and along the symmetric plane (y = 0) under the external magnetic field of 7, 15, and 20 G of the 10 mm, 200 A arc

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