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Design Innovation

Partial Transient Liquid Phase Diffusion Bonding of Zircaloy-4 to Stabilized Austenitic Stainless Steel 321 Using Titanium Interlayer

[+] Author and Article Information
M. Mazar Atabaki

Institute for Materials Research, The School of Process, Environmental and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom; Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,  Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Malaysiapmmmaa@leeds.ac.uk

J. Idris

Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,  Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Malaysia

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 134(1), 015001 (Jan 11, 2012) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4005304 History: Received May 27, 2010; Revised October 07, 2011; Published January 11, 2012; Online January 11, 2012

In this study, an innovative method was applied for bonding Zircaloy-4 to stabilized austenitic stainless steel 321 using an active titanium interlayer. Specimens were joined by partial transient liquid phase diffusion bonding method in a vacuum furnace at different temperatures under 1 MPa dynamic pressure of contact. The influence of different bonding temperatures on the microstructure, microindentation hardness, joint strength, and interlayer thickness has been studied. Additionally, a simple numerical model was developed to predict the evolution of interlayer during partial transient liquid phase diffusion bonding. Diffusion of Fe, Cr, Ni, and Zr has been investigated by scanning electron microscopy examinations and energy dispersive spectroscopy elemental analyses. Results showed that control of heating and cooling rate and 20 min soaking at 1223 K produces a perfect joint. However, solid state diffusion of the melting point depressant elements into the joint metal causes the solid/liquid interface to advance until the joint is solidified. The tensile strength values of all bonded specimens were found around 480–670 MPa. Energy dispersive spectroscopy studies indicated that the melting occurred along the interface of bonded specimens as a result of transfer of atoms between the interlayer and the matrix during bonding. The evolution of interlayer film thickness indicates a good agreement between the calculation and experimental measurement. This technique provides a reliable method of bonding zirconium alloy to stainless steel.

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Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 3

Microstructure of the cross-section of the partial transient liquid phase diffusion bonded specimens at two temperatures; (a) 1123 K and (b) 1223 K for 20 min

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Figure 4

SEM micrograph of Zircaloy-4/Ti-base interlayer/stainless steel joint bonded at 1223 K (950 °C) showing partial diffusion and incomplete isothermal solidification

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Figure 5

SEM micrograph of Zircaloy-4/Ti-base interlayer/stainless steel joint bonded at 1123 K showing partial diffusion and very small values of isothermal solidification

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Figure 6

Microindentation hardness profiles as a function of distance from the centreline for the bonds prepared by holding 20 min at (a) 1123 K and (b) 1223 K

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Figure 7

Variation of tensile strengths of the specimens bonded at the different partial transient liquid phase diffusion bonding temperatures

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Figure 8

Schematic of the solid/liquid moving interface shows the migration of the interface by distances ΔXPTLP-DB and ΔXTLP

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Figure 9

The effect of bonding time on the thickness of reaction layers in two sides of the bonded specimens at T1 and T2

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Figure 10

The effect of bonding temperature on the growth of reaction layers in Zircaloy4/Ti-base interlayer and stainless steel 321/Ti-base interlayer sides at couple’s interfaces bonded for a constant boning time of 1.2 ks

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Figure 11

Schematic illustration of evolution in partial transient liquid phase diffusion bonding of two dissimilar metals using a Ti-base alloy insert layer; (a) thickness evolution of interlayer reaction in both sides of interacted diffusion zone, (b) thickness evolution of original interlayer; A: Zircaloy-4 and B: stainless steel. These are pushed toward the final location of the bond line

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Figure 12

Controlling the partial transient liquid phase diffusion bonding as a function of the time of reaction layers formation as well as bonding temperature

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Figure 13

Effect of different heating rate on tensile strength of partial transient liquid phase diffusion bonded Zircaloy-4/Ti-base interlayer/St-St 321 specimens

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Figure 14

Average free energy (ΔGPTLP-DB ) of transporting the solute across the bond line

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Figure 1

Schematic description of the sample preparation

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Figure 2

Cycle of partial transient liquid phase diffusion bonding of Zircaloy-4-stainless steel 321 with Ti-base interlayer

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