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Research Papers

How to Build Flexible Design Automation Systems for Manufacturability Analysis of the Draw Bending of Aluminum Profiles

[+] Author and Article Information
Joel Johansson

 School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Swedenjoel.johansson@jth.hj.se

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 133(6), 061027 (Dec 27, 2011) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4005355 History: Received February 11, 2011; Revised October 19, 2011; Published December 27, 2011; Online December 27, 2011

Manufacturing companies continually need to develop and produce products faster, cheaper, and of better quality to meet requirements from customers and investors. One key factor in meeting these requirements is the efficiency of the product development and the production preparation processes. Design automation is a powerful tool for increasing the efficiency of these two processes. The benefits of automating manufacturability analyses, a part of the production preparation process, are shortened lead time, improved product performance, and ultimately decreased cost. Further, the automation is beneficial as it increases the ability to adapt products to new specifications since production preparations are done in few or in a single step. Extruded sections of aluminum (aluminum profiles) have many advantages, especially for light weight structural members, and are used in many products. Many times a secondary forming process, such as bending, is required when these materials are used. The intention of the work presented in this article has been to investigate how to automate the process of finding manufacturing limits of the rotary draw bending of aluminum profiles with focus on the system architecture needed to make such systems flexible. Finding the forming limits of an aluminum profile is not a trivial task. This is because the limits depend not only on the profile shape but also on the layout of the tool. Hence, simulations have to be done to evaluate different designs. A prototype system was developed to explore what was needed to automate simulation of the rotary draw bending of aluminum profiles, and subsequently, analyze the simulated production outcome with respect to wrinkling and developed length.

Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

The design for manufacturing approach according to Hannam. The intention of the work described in this article was to add computer-aided analysis to the manufacturing requirements.

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Figure 2

An example implementation of a system based on knowledge objects

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Figure 3

A tool set for tube bending contains up to five main components that exist in many variants

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Figure 4

The automated manufacturability analysis process [30]

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Figure 5

Sketches added to the model to define a profile section

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Figure 6

The curves in the length direction of the bent profiles, referred to as trace curves, were developed in four steps. (a) Resulting mesh from simulation. (b) Nodes sorted out from mesh. (c) First section found based on extrude direction. (d) Resulting trace curves that are further analyzed.

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Figure 7

Curvature calculation nomenclature

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Figure 8

Wrinkling is detected using the relative curvature deviation measure. To the left, now wrinkling occurs; to the right, wrinkling is plotted as thick lines.

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Figure 9

The centerline can be found by connecting the center points of all the sections

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Figure 10

The resulting selection chart shows when to apply a plug section support. The selection chart is based on simulations of bending T4 aluminum tubes that were visually evaluated.

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Figure 11

The maximum relative curvature deviation of the trace curves of the tubes. (BF = bend factor)

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Figure 12

The maximum relative curvature deviation of the centerline of the tubes. (BF = bend factor)

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Figure 13

Minimum curvature of section lines

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Figure 14

Collapsing sections can be detected by inflection points which are plotted with thick lines

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Figure 15

The resulting selection chart when applying the automated curvature analysis. Ĉt<10,Ĉ|<1, and κr<0.01.

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Figure 16

Simulations were run to investigate the effect of making the section support lamellar

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Figure 17

Lamellar section support does not affect the wrinkling or developed length. (a) Rectangular profile without section support. (b) Solid section support. (c) Four lamellas. (d) Ten lamellas.

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Figure 18

Using the method to generate section support layouts as presented in Ref. [30] and listing all possible combinations of support yields eight configurations

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Figure 19

Ĉt is the maximum curvature of trace lines. Ĉ| is the maximum curvature of centerline.

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