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Research Papers

Formability and Surface Finish Studies in Single Point Incremental Forming

[+] Author and Article Information
A. Bhattacharya

Department of Mechanical Engineering,  Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016, Indiaabhatta@iitk.ac.in

K. Maneesh

Department of Mechanical Engineering,  Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016, Indiamaneesh_koganti@yahoo.co.uk

N. Venkata Reddy1

Department of Mechanical Engineering,  Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016, Indianvr@iitk.ac.in

Jian Cao

Department of Mechanical Engineering,  Northwestern University Evanston, Evanston, IL 60201 jcao@northwestern.edu

1

Corresponding author.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 133(6), 061020 (Dec 21, 2011) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4005458 History: Received April 01, 2011; Revised September 15, 2011; Published December 21, 2011; Online December 21, 2011

Incremental sheet metal forming (ISMF) has demonstrated its great potential to form complex three-dimensional parts without using a component specific tooling. The die-less nature in incremental forming provides a competitive alternative for economically and effectively fabricating low-volume functional sheet parts. However, ISMF has limitations with respect to maximum formable wall angle, geometrical accuracy, and surface finish of the component. In the present work, an experimental study is carried out to study the effect of incremental sheet metal forming process variables on maximum formable angle and surface finish. Box–Behnken method is used to design the experiments for formability study and full factorial method is used for surface finish study. Analysis of experimental results indicates that formability in incremental forming decreases with increase in tool diameter. Formable angle first increases and then decreases with incremental depth and it is also observed that the variation in the formable angle is not significant in the range of incremental depths considered to produce good surface finishes during the present study. A simple analysis model is used to estimate the stress values during incremental sheet metal forming assuming that the deformation occurs predominantly under plane strain condition. A stress-based criterion is used along with the above mentioned analysis to predict the formability in ISMF and its predictions are in very good agreement with the experimental results. Surface roughness decreases with increase in tool diameter for all incremental depths. Surface roughness increases first with increase in incremental depth up to certain angle and then decreases. Surface roughness value decreases with increase in wall angle.

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Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Setup used for incremental forming

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Figure 2

Geometry of components for formability (cone) and surface finish (pyramid) experiments

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Figure 3

Incremental forming tool (2, roller bearing; 3, thrust bearing)

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Figure 4

Principal stress directions in incremental forming

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Figure 5

Schematic showing material movement and thickness calculation procedure

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Figure 6

Variation of successfully formable angle with tool diameter and sheet thickness

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Figure 7

Variation of formable angle with incremental depth (in the considered range)

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Figure 8

Grid showing the strain levels at opening of formed components for different incremental depths

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Figure 9

Variation of formable angle with incremental depth (using tool diameter 6 mm, feed rate 40 mm/rev)

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Figure 10

Comparison of stress criterion predictions with experimental results

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Figure 11

Variation of successfully formable angle with strain hardening parameters

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Figure 12

Typical surface roughness profiles

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Figure 13

Variation of surface finish with tool diameter at different incremental depths and (a) α = 20 deg, (b) α = 40 deg, and (c) α = 60 deg

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Figure 14

Contribution of factors for main effects for Ra (1, wall angle; 2, tool diameter; 3, incremental depth)

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