Research Papers

Advances in Sheet Forming—Materials Modeling, Numerical Simulation, and Press Technologies

[+] Author and Article Information
M. G. Lee, C. Kim, E. J. Pavlina

 Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31 Hyoja-dong, Nam-gu, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784, Republic of Korea

F. Barlat1

 Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31 Hyoja-dong, Nam-gu, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784, Republic of Koreaf.barlat@postech.ac.kr


Corresponding author.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 133(6), 061001 (Nov 11, 2011) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4005117 History: Received April 15, 2011; Revised August 19, 2011; Online November 11, 2011; Published November 28, 2011

Forming modern advanced high strength steels poses challenges that were not of real importance in the previous decades. These challenges are the result of the steels’ complex microstructures and hardening behaviors, and the problems directly related to the high strength of the material, especially springback. New methodologies and processes are required to overcome these challenges and to produce formed panels via optimized forming processes. This paper reviews the key developments in the fields of numerical simulation of sheet forming processes, the material models required to obtain accurate results, and the advanced stamping presses and approaches for shaping modern steel sheet materials into desired shapes. Present research trends are summarized, which point to further developmental possibilities. Within the next decade, it is predicted that numerical simulations will become an integral part of the developmental and optimization process for stamping tools and forming processes. In addition to predicting the strains in the formed panel and its shape after trimming and springback, the simulation technology will also determine the optimum displacement path of the forming tool elements to realize minimum springback. Toward those goals, digital servo presses are expected to become an integral element of the overall forming technology.

Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Representative experimental stress–strain data of an interstitial-free tested in a tension-compression-tension sequence. Simulation results using the HAH model and a simple isotropic hardening model are also shown. Reproduced from Ref. [42].

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Figure 2

Schematic representation of the distortion of the yield surface for the HAH model at different strain levels during tensile deformation

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Figure 3

Effect of element choice on the accuracy of drawbend springback prediction for aluminum alloy 6022-T4; (a) predictions using 2D elements and linear 3D solid elements and (b) predictions using higher order 3D solid elements and 3D shell elements [71]

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Figure 4

Mesh normal contact scheme proposed by Zhuang [83] where sheet thickness (h) is considered where X0 corresponds to the sheet mid-plane position and X1 corresponds to the offset surface plane closest to a particular tool surface

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Figure 5

Comparison of measured and predicted (a) punch force and (b) draw-in distances with various sheet thickness contact treatments for a cup drawing forming operation [83]

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Figure 6

Comparisons of FE predictions of springback in a double S-rail simulated using a pure isotropic (Iso), a pure kinetic (Kine), and a combined isotropic-kinematic (Iso-kine) hardening model for aluminum alloy 6111-T4 [95]

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Figure 7

Schematic of the circular cup drawing test showing (a) tooling dimensions (in millimeters) and (b) the corresponding FE model [96]

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Figure 8

(a) Deformed configuration and equivalent stress at the outer surface of the drawn cup predicted with by the Srp2004-18p anisotropic model and (b) comparison of the experimental cup ear profile of a drawn cup with predictions by three anisotropic models [96]

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Figure 9

Schematic illustration of (a) slide displacement profile of a metal forming operation conducted by a digital servo press and (b) example of a stepwise slide displacement profile possible in a servo press



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