Nanocomposite and multiphase structures have become more important nowadays to enhance the mechanical properties of materials. Laser shock peening (LSP) is one of the most efficient ways to increase component fatigue life. In this paper, numerical and experimental studies have been carried out to study the effects of nanoparticles integrated structures during the laser shock peening of aluminum alloys. The LSP experiment of aluminum samples with different particle densities was carried out. The effect of nanoparticle on shock wave propagation, plastic deformation, energy absorption, and residual stress magnitude was studied. A qualitative agreement is found between experiment and simulation. The existence of nanoparticles affects the stress wave propagation and increases the ratio of absorbed energy to total energy and thus the magnitude of residual stress of the material after LSP.