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SPECIAL ISSUE ON NANOMANUFACTURING

Assessment of Microbial Biofilm Growth on Nanocrystalline Diamond in a Continuous Perfusion Environment

[+] Author and Article Information
J. S. Lewis, S. D. Gittard

Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina and North Carolina State University, 152 MacNider Hall, Campus Box 7575, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7575

R. J. Narayan1

Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina and North Carolina State University, 152 MacNider Hall, Campus Box 7575, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7575roger_narayan@unc.edu

C. J. Berry, R. L. Brigmon

Environmental Biotechnology Section, Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808

R. Ramamurti, R. N. Singh

Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012

1

Corresponding author.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 132(3), 030919 (Jun 14, 2010) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4001583 History: Received October 09, 2009; Revised April 09, 2010; Published June 14, 2010; Online June 14, 2010

A major concern with medical and dental biomaterials is colonization of these materials with microbial biofilms. One material processed using chemical vapor deposition and other conventional top-down nanomanufacturing technologies that has recently been considered for use in preventing growth of microorganisms is the nanocrystalline diamond. Nanocrystalline diamond coatings have been evaluated for use as coatings on medical implants (e.g., hip prostheses) and surgical tools due to their low coefficient of friction, high corrosion resistance, high hardness, and high wear resistance. In this study, the microstructural properties and microorganism interaction behavior of nanocrystalline diamond coatings were examined. A device for examining microbial biofilms known as a CDC biofilm reactor was used to examine the interaction between a fluorescent microorganism, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and nanocrystalline diamond coatings in a continuous perfusion environment. Biofilm formation was evident on the nanocrystalline diamond surface after 24 h. No correlation between grain size or morphology and cell density was observed; large variations in P. fluorescens growth on the coatings were observed, even for the samples with similar grain sizes and morphologies. The results of this study suggest that nanocrystalline diamond coatings do not prevent Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilm development in a continuous perfusion environment. Additional treatment of the nanocrystalline diamond coatings with antimicrobial and/or antifouling agents would be necessary to prevent formation of microbial biofilms. The development of novel continuous flow technologies for evaluating the growth of microbial biofilms on biomaterials will provide a better understanding of biomaterial-microorganism interaction and will enable the creation of enhanced antimicrobial biomaterials.

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Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Photograph of CDC biofilm reactor system

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Figure 2

Scanning electron micrographs of the nanocrystalline diamond coatings. Micrographs for Samples 1, 2, and 3 are shown in (ac), respectively.

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Figure 3

Raman spectra of nanocrystalline diamond coatings. The peak at 1140 cm−1 is associated with diamond coatings that exhibit small grain sizes. The peak at 1332 cm−1 is attributed to sp3-hybridized carbon atoms. The features at 1350 cm−1, 1550 cm−1, and 1470 cm−1 are attributed to sp2-hybridized carbon atoms.

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Figure 4

Laser scanning confocal micrograph of P. fluorescens growth on a nanocrystalline diamond coating (Sample 2) obtain 1 h and 25 min after incubation. This image shows few bacteria attached to the nanocrystalline diamond coating. The stainless steel control showed more growth at that time point. These early colonizers became constituents in a larger biofilm, which became significant in size by 24 h after incubation.

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Figure 5

Laser scanning confocal micrograph of P. fluorescens growth on stainless steel obtained 1 h and 25 min after incubation. This image shows substantially mature biofilm, which was up to 20 μm in thickness.

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Figure 6

Laser scanning confocal micrograph of P. fluorescens growth on a nanocrystalline diamond coating (Sample 2) obtained 24 h after incubation. This image shows a biofilm attached to the nanocrystalline diamond coating, as well as smaller clumps of cells.

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Figure 7

Laser scanning confocal micrograph of a P. fluorescens biofilm up to 14 μm in thickness on a nanocrystalline diamond coating (Sample 2); individual attached cells were also noted

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