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SPECIAL ISSUE ON NANOMANUFACTURING

Integrated Sustainability Analysis of Atomic Layer Deposition for Microelectronics Manufacturing

[+] Author and Article Information
Chris Y. Yuan

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, 5100A Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-1740chrisyuan@berkeley.edu

David A. Dornfeld

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, 5100A Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-1740dornfeld@berkeley.edu

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 132(3), 030918 (Jun 14, 2010) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4001686 History: Received June 15, 2009; Revised April 16, 2010; Published June 14, 2010; Online June 14, 2010

Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a promising nanotechnology for wide applications in microelectronics manufacturing due to its ability to control layer growth at atomic scale. Sustainability of ALD technology needs to be quantitatively investigated in this early development stage to improve its economic and environmental performance. In this paper, we present an integrated sustainability analysis of ALD technology through material and energy flow analyses. The study is performed on the ALD of Al2O3 high-κ dielectric film through trimethylaluminum and water binary reactions. The precursor utilizations, methane emissions, and nanowaste generations from the ALD process are all quantitatively studied. Energy flow analysis demonstrates that the ALD process energy consumption is mainly determined by the ALD cycle time rather than the process temperature. Scale-up performance of the ALD technology is also studied for both emission generations and energy consumptions. Strategies and methods for improving the sustainability performance of the ALD technology are suggested based on the analysis.

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Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

ALD lattice configurations

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Figure 2

Material utilization efficiency of TMA and H2O at three process pressures

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Figure 3

Wasted TMA amount at three pressure levels

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Figure 4

Wasted H2O amount at three pressure levels

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Figure 5

CH4 emissions at three pressure levels

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Figure 6

Nitrogen consumption at three pressure levels

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Figure 7

Al2O3 nanowastes generated from the ALD process

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Figure 8

ALD process energy consumption

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Figure 9

Energy Flow diagram of 200 cycle ALD processes at 200°C

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Figure 10

ALD energy dependence on the process parameters

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Figure 11

ALD energy consumption at 200°C for 200 cycles

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