Integrated Two-Photon Polymerization With Nanoimprinting for Direct Digital Nanomanufacturing

[+] Author and Article Information
Wande Zhang

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712

Li-Hsin Han

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712

Shaochen Chen

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712scchen@mail.utexas.edu

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 132(3), 030907 (May 26, 2010) (5 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4001661 History: Received June 14, 2009; Revised April 11, 2010; Published May 26, 2010; Online May 26, 2010

In this work, we demonstrate the plausibility of integrating two-photon polymerization (TPP) with nanoimprinting for direct, digital nanomanufacturing. TPP offers manufacturing of nanomolds at a low cost, while the nanoimprinting process using the nanomolds enables massively parallel printing of nanostructures. A Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser (800 nm wavelength, 100 fs pulse width, at a repetition rate of 80 MHz) was used to induce TPP in dipentaerythritol pentaacrylate to fabricate the nanoimprinting mold with 400 nm wide line array on a glass substrate. The mold surface was silanized by tridecafuoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydrooctyl-1 trichlorosilane to facilitate the detachment of the mold from the imprinted material. This mold was then used to imprint poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA). PEGDA is an important biomaterial for many applications such as tissue scaffolds for cell growth. A spectrophotometer and a scanning electron microscope were used to characterize the materials and nanostructures.

Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Absorption spectra of DPPA with 1% photoinitiator and with 0% photoinitiator. There is no absorption near 800 nm in either solution and there is strong absorption in DPPA with 1% photoinitiator near 400 nm.

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Figure 2

Experimental setup of two-photon polymerization

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Figure 3

Schematic diagram of the post-treatment of the mold surface: (a) silicon tetrachloride reacted with the hydroxyl groups on the mold surface; (b) the mold was soaked in DI water and the number of hydroxyl groups on the mold surface greatly increased as the chlorine ions of silicon tetrachloride were replaced by hydroxyl groups in water molecules; (c) the mold was annealed on a hot plate at 100°C to stabilize the layer of hydroxyl groups by forming-Si-O-Si-bonds between adjacent silicon tetrachloride molecules; (d) tridecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydrooctyl-1 trichlorosilane reacted with the hydroxyl groups on the mold surface, RF=(CH2)2(CF2)5CF3; (e) the mold was once again soaked in DI water; (f) the mold was annealed on a hot plate at 100°C

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Figure 4

SEM images of the imprinted PEGDA structures and the DPPA mold after imprinting: (a) DPPA mold of 400 nm-wide lines with a pitch of 5 μm; (b) side view of the DPPA mold; (c) imprinted PEGDA structures of 400 nm-wide trenches with a pitch of 5 μm; (d) perspective view of the PEGDA trench cross section; the inset is the vertical view of the trench cross section




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