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Research Papers

Predictive Modeling and Experimental Verification of Temperature and Concentration in Rapid Freeze Prototyping With Support Material

[+] Author and Article Information
Frances D. Bryant

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409fbryant@mst.edu

Ming C. Leu

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409mleu@mst.edu

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 131(4), 041020 (Jul 17, 2009) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3173804 History: Received January 18, 2008; Revised June 14, 2009; Published July 17, 2009

Rapid freeze prototyping is a solid freeform fabrication method that uses water freezing into ice as the build material. Each layer of geometry is deposited and allowed to freeze before the next layer is added in order to additively create a three-dimensional ice part. A sacrificial support material is needed for the fabrication of complex ice parts. Identifying a suitable support material and understanding the interaction between the build and support materials is the motivation behind this study. A temperature prediction model and a concentration prediction model are presented. Experimental results have been obtained to validate these models.

Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Rapid freeze prototyping schematic

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Figure 2

Build area within the freezer in the rapid freeze prototyping process

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Figure 3

Phase diagram for a salt/water solution

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Figure 4

Phase diagram for a sugar/water solution

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Figure 5

Ice part before support material is removed

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Figure 6

Ice part after support material is removed

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Figure 7

Minimum wait time between layers as a function of ambient temperature

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Figure 9

Two-dimensional wall of support material (white) and a layer of water (gray) for temperature analysis

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Figure 11

Experimental versus predicted temperature data for an ambient temperature of −13.7°C

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Figure 12

Experimental versus predicted temperature data for an ambient temperature of −7.5°C

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Figure 13

Peak temperature during water deposition on support material

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Figure 14

Diffusion considered in a thin wall

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Figure 15

FEA concentration model with mesh and boundary conditions

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Figure 16

Predicted concentrations at different heights of the fabricated wall

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Figure 17

Predicted concentration at different positions on the x-axis

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Figure 21

An ice part built in −23°C ambient: (a) CAD model, (b) before support removal, and (c) after support removal

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Figure 20

An ice part with support material (white) built in −8.5°C ambient, showing severe diffusion

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Figure 19

Comparison of model prediction (the curve) and experimental data (the dots) for the height of ice wall affected after support material removal

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Figure 18

Predicted concentration at different heights along the thin wall

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Figure 10

Experimental versus predicted temperature data for an ambient temperature of −24°C

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Figure 8

Ice part built with local cooling

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