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Research Papers

Experimental and Numerical Study of the LENS Rapid Fabrication Process

[+] Author and Article Information
Liang Wang

Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762

Sergio D. Felicelli

Department of Mechanical Engineering, and Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762

James E. Craig

 Stratonics Inc., Laguna Hills, CA 92653

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 131(4), 041019 (Jul 16, 2009) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3173952 History: Received November 13, 2007; Revised November 25, 2008; Published July 16, 2009

Several aspects of the thermal behavior of deposited stainless steel 410 (SS410) during the laser engineered net shaping (LENS™) process were investigated experimentally and numerically. Thermal images in the molten pool and surrounding area were recorded using a two-wavelength imaging pyrometer system, and analyzed using THERMAVIZ ™ software to obtain the temperature distribution. The molten pool size, temperature gradient, and cooling rate were obtained from the recorded history of temperature profiles. The dynamic shape of the molten pool, including the pool size in both travel direction and depth direction was investigated, and the effect of different process parameters was illustrated. The thermal experiments were performed in a LENS™ 850 machine with a 3 kW IPG Photonics laser for different process parameters. A three-dimensional finite element model was developed to calculate the temperature distribution in the LENS™ process as a function of time and process parameters. The modeling results showed good agreement with the experimental data.

Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

(a) Schematic and (b) side view of thermal experimental setup

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Figure 2

Calibration curves for the THERMAVIZ ™ two-wavelength thermal imaging pyrometer with and without film

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Figure 3

Finite element mesh and geometry to simulate the LENS process for ten layer wall

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Figure 4

Photograph of performing a single wall build during the LENS process

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Figure 5

Photograph of specimen samples: (a) P=300 W and V=2.5 mm/s; (b) P=600 W and V=4.2 mm/s

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Figure 6

(a) Short wavelength intensity image, (b) long wavelength intensity image, and (c) temperature image and molten pool size at P=600 W and V=2.5 mm/s. Intensity is in counts and temperature in °C

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Figure 7

(a) Temperature and (b) temperature gradient along the opposite travel direction (horizontal line in the x-direction as shown in Fig. 6) for P=600 W and V=2.5 mm/s

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Figure 8

(a) Temperature and (b) temperature gradient along the depth direction (vertical line in the y direction as shown in Fig. 6) for P=600 W and V=2.5 mm/s

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Figure 9

Thermal profiles in the molten pool along (a) depth and (b) opposite travel directions for different laser powers and a travel velocity of 2.5 mm/s

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Figure 10

Maximum temperatures in the molten pool versus laser powers for different laser travel velocities

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Figure 16

Comparison between modeling and experimental results for thermal profiles in the molten pool along (a) depth and (b) opposite travel directions at P=600 W and V=2.5 mm/s

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Figure 15

Thermal cycles at the center of each layer at P=600 W and V=2.5 mm/s

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Figure 14

Molten pool size distribution for each layer at P=600 W and V=2.5 mm/s

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Figure 13

Maximum cooling rates along the laser opposite travel direction versus laser travel velocities for different laser powers

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Figure 12

Molten pool sizes along the depth direction versus laser powers for different laser travel velocities

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Figure 11

Molten pool size along the laser opposite travel direction for different laser powers at travel velocities of 2.5 mm/s

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