Nonlinear absorption of femtosecond laser pulses enables the induction of structural changes in the interior of bulk transparent materials without affecting their surface. In the present study, femtosecond laser pulses were tightly focused within the interior of bulk fused silica specimen. Localized plasma was formed, initiating rearrangement of the random network structure. Cross sections of the induced features were examined via decomposition of spatially resolved Raman spectra and a new method for the quantitative characterization of the structure of amorphous fused silica was developed. The proposed method identifies the volume fraction distribution of ring structures within the continuous random network of the probed volume of the target material and changes of the distribution with laser process conditions. Effects of the different process conditions and the material response to different mechanisms of feature generation were discussed as well.