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Research Papers

Modeling of the Plane Needle Cutting Edge Rake and Inclination Angles for Biopsy

[+] Author and Article Information
Jason Z. Moore

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109

Qinhe Zhang

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100, China

Carl S. McGill

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109

Haojun Zheng

Department of Precision Instrument and Mechanology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China

Patrick W. McLaughlin

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109

Albert J. Shih

Department of Mechanical Engineering, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 132(5), 051005 (Sep 20, 2010) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4002190 History: Received August 18, 2009; Revised July 02, 2010; Published September 20, 2010; Online September 20, 2010

Hollow needles are one of the most common medical devices, yet little study has focused on the needle tip cutting geometry for biopsy, which is a tissue cutting process. This research develops mathematical models to calculate the inclination and rake angles along cutting edges on needle tips generated by planes. Three types of plane needle tips, the one-plane bias bevel, multi-plane symmetrical, and two-plane nonsymmetric needles, are investigated. The models show that the leading tip of a bias bevel needle has an inclination angle of 0 deg, the worst configuration for cutting. Symmetric multiplane needles on the other hand have very high inclination angles, 60, 56.3, and 50.8 deg, given a needle formed by two-, three-, and four-plane, respectively, for a bevel angle of 30 deg and can assist more effective needle biopsy. The rake angle is at its greatest value (the best configuration for cutting), which equals the 90 deg minus the bevel angle, at the initial cutting point for the bias bevel needle. Experiments are performed using three 11 gauge two-plane symmetric needles with 20, 25, and 30 deg bevel angles on bovine liver and demonstrate that the needle tip geometry affects biopsy performance, where longer biopsy samples are collected with needles of higher rake and inclination angle.

Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Topics: needles , Cutting
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Figures

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Figure 1

End-cut biopsy operation performed in three steps: (a) needle positioned in front of biopsy area, (b) needle advancing, cutting and trapping biopsy sample, and (c) needle with biopsy sample removed from tissue

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Figure 2

One-plane bias bevel needle tip and cutting edge: (a) generation of needle tip by a plane and (b) cutting edge of bias bevel needle

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Figure 3

Multiplane symmetric and nonsymmetric needle tips

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Figure 4

Bias bevel needle model: (a) bias needle tip and (b) xz cross section

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Figure 5

Multiplane symmetrical needle tips: (a) two-plane and (b) three-plane

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Figure 6

Nonsymmetric two-plane needle

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Figure 7

Definition of rake angle in the bias bevel needle

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Figure 8

Inclination angle of bias bevel needles

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Figure 9

Cutting edge profile and λ for multiplane needles with P=2, 3, and 4, ξ=30 deg, and r=1 mm

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Figure 10

Inclination angle of a symmetrical multiplane needle (P=3 and 4) with ξ=15, 30, and 45 deg

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Figure 13

Rake angle of bias bevel needle for ξ=15, 30, and 45 deg

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Figure 14

Two-plane symmetric 11 gauge needles of ξ=20, 25, and 30 deg

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Figure 15

(a) Overall experimental setup for biopsy needle performance testing and (b) close up view of needle and tissue

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Figure 17

Average biopsy sample length collected for 11 gauge two-plane symmetric needles of varying bevel angles (error bar representing the range of standard deviation)

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Figure 16

Rake and inclination angles for a two-plane symmetric needle of ξ=20, 25, and 30 deg

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Figure 12

Cutting edge profile and λ when ξ1=30 deg, ξ2=30 deg, r=1 mm, ψ=135 deg, and h=0, 1.5, and 2 mm

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Figure 11

Cutting edge profile and λ when ξ1=30 deg, ξ2=30 deg, r=1 mm, and h=0 for ψ=45, 90, and 180 deg

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