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Special Section: Micromanufacturing

Laser Ablation of Metals: A 3D Process Simulation for Industrial Applications

[+] Author and Article Information
Giovanni Tani

Department of Mechanical Construction Engineering, University of Bologna, 40136, Bologna, Italygiovanni.tani2@unibo.it

Leonardo Orazi1

Department of Science and Methods for Engineering, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 42100, Reggio Emilia, Italyleonardo.orazi@unimore.it

Alessandro Fortunato

Department of Mechanical Construction Engineering, University of Bologna, 40136, Bologna, Italyalessandro.fortunato@unibo.it

Gabriele Cuccolini

Department of Science and Methods for Engineering, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 42100, Reggio Emilia, Italygabriele.cuccolini@unimore.it

1

Corresponding author.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 130(3), 031111 (May 12, 2008) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2917326 History: Received August 14, 2007; Revised February 01, 2008; Published May 12, 2008

A model for laser milling simulation is presented in this paper. A numerical model able to predict the physical phenomena involved in laser ablation of metals was developed where the heat distribution in the work piece, the prediction of the velocity of the vapor/liquid front, and the physical state of the plasma plume were taken into account. The model is fully 3D and the simulations makes it possible to predict the ablated workpiece volume and the shape of the resulting craters for a single laser pulse or multiple pulses, or for any path of the laser spot. The numerical model was implemented in C++ and an overview of the code capacities is presented.

Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

The variation of the physical properties near the critical point. The subscript 0 refers to the physical properties at normal boiling temperature (11).

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Figure 2

The coefficients for the heat capacity evaluation in aluminum

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Figure 3

Variation of the thermal conductivity k of aluminum

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Figure 4

Plasma plume: the energy balance

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Figure 5

Three-dimensional finite difference grid

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Figure 6

The inheritance scheme of the elements

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Figure 7

The influence of the laser power density on the surface temperature for aluminum

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Figure 8

The predicted ion density N of the plume for 6×1012W∕m2

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Figure 9

The influence of the laser power density on the ion densty N of the plume

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Figure 10

The influence of the laser power density on the plasma plume temperature for aluminum

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Figure 11

The plume temperature evolution; I=6×1012W∕m2

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Figure 12

Example of laser milling for a polished surface in an aluminum target; dx=dy=1×10−7mdz=1.5×10−7m

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Figure 13

Example of laser milling for a rough surface in an aluminum target; dx=dy=1×10−7mdz=1.5×10−7m

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Figure 14

Example of laser milling for a gaussian energy laser distribution in a finite element (FE) target; dx=dy=1×10−7mdz=1.5×10−7m

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Figure 15

Example of laser milling for a constant energy laser distribution in a FE target; dx=dy=1×10−7mdz=1.5×10−7m

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Figure 16

Example of laser milling in a linear path simulation: transverse section; dx=dy=1×10−7mdz=0.5×10−7m

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Figure 17

Example of laser milling in a linear path simulation; dx=dy=1×10−7mdz=0.5×10−7m

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Figure 18

Comparison between the experimental and the predicted crater depths

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Figure 19

Comparison between the experimental and the predicted crater width

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