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Special Section: Micromanufacturing

Design, Fabrication, and Characterization of Metal Embedded Microphotonic Sensors

[+] Author and Article Information
Xugang Zhang

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1513 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706

Hongrui Jiang

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1415 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706

Xiaochun Li

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1513 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706xcli@engr.wisc.edu

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 130(3), 031104 (May 05, 2008) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2917356 History: Received September 14, 2007; Revised January 17, 2008; Published May 05, 2008

Recent developments in integrated microphotonics have led to unprecedented potential toward robust sensor enhancements for manufacturing systems. These micron-sized subwavelength structured photonic sensors could allow critical thermomechanical phenomena in manufacturing processes to be monitored while offering immunity to electromagnetic interference, resistance to hostile environments, multiplexing capabilities, and high rates of data collection. To implement these novel sensors into real manufacturing processes, the microphotonic sensors can be embedded at critical locations in metallic structures, which are heavily used in hostile manufacturing environments. This paper presents the study of design, fabrication, and characterization of integrated microring sensors. Various thin film optical materials were studied and single ring resonators were designed. A new approach to fabricate metal embedded microring sensors was developed. Metal embedded optical microring temperature sensors were characterized. The Q factor of the metal embedded microring sensors was measured to be around 2000, while the free spectral range was about 5.2nm. The temperature sensitivity of the metal embedded microring sensor was 24.2pm°C.

Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Transmission spectrum of an optical waveguide coupled to a ring resonator

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Figure 2

Refractive index varied with various wavelengths and process conditions

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Figure 3

Metal embedded photonic waveguide

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Figure 4

Simulation of waveguide

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Figure 5

Tapered waveguide for light coupling

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Figure 6

Parametric study of taper length

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Figure 7

Simulation of bending loss

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Figure 8

Dimensions for ring resonators

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Figure 9

Sensor fabrication process flow: (a) Deposit SixNy by LPCVD on Si, (b) sputter Ti∕Ni followed by Ni electroplating then etch out the back side SixNy, (c) deposit SiO2 and SixNy by PECVD on metal wafer, (d) employ hybrid lithography and RIE to define sensor structures, deposit top SiO2 by PECVD, (e) sputter Ti∕Ni and electroplate Ni again to embed sensors, and (f) dice sensors into single units

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Figure 10

SEM image of optical microring

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Figure 11

(a) Waveguides before embedding and (b) metal embedded waveguides

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Figure 12

(a) Polished embedded waveguide facet and (b) output light pattern

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Figure 13

(a) FIB machined embedded sensor and (b) polished waveguide facet

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Figure 14

Experimental setup for characterization

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Figure 15

Measured spectral response (normalized to maximum) at room temperature

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Figure 16

Spectral response (normalized to maximum) with respect to temperature

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Figure 17

Resonant wavelength as a function of temperature

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