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Research Papers

Mechanism and Prediction of Laser Wet Cleaning of Marble Encrustation

[+] Author and Article Information
Jie Zhang, Andrew J. Birnbaum, Y. Lawrence Yao

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027

Fen Xu, John R. Lombardi

Department of Chemistry, City College of New York, New York, NY 10031

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 130(3), 031012 (May 23, 2008) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2927446 History: Received January 12, 2007; Revised November 19, 2007; Published May 23, 2008

During the removal of encrustation from marble with 355nm laser pulses, the effects of the thin liquid layer covering the encrustation are experimentally and numerically investigated. The working mechanism of the liquid layer is analyzed. A two-dimensional axial symmetric model is proposed to simulate the changes in the temperature, liquid volumetric fraction, and vapor pressure in the irradiated encrustation. To model the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy, three coupled nonlinear partial differential equations are numerically solved. The measured porosity of the encrustation is incorporated into the model. Marble cleaning with three different liquids having different thermodynamic properties, distilled water, ethanol, and acetone, are compared in terms of the cleaning efficiency at different fluence levels. With the liquid layer, the surface color of cleaned marble is also studied. In addition, surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy and a chromameter are used to identify the chemical constituents and measure the color of the cleaned marble, respectively.

Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic of the established model for laser wet cleaning

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Figure 2

SEM image of the artificial encrustation on marble

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Figure 3

Comparison of the ablated encrustation weight by one single pulse at different fluence levels without and with distilled water

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Figure 4

Images of debris collected during laser wet cleaning experiment

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Figure 5

Surface contours of (a) temperature with total heat flux, (b) water volumetric fraction, and (c) pressure at 50ns produced by the pulse at 0.67J∕cm2 in the partial encrustation (10×98μm2)

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Figure 6

Simulated time history of temperature, pressure and water volumetric fraction at the point with the maximal pressure at 50ns in the encrustation irradiated at 0.67J∕cm2

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Figure 7

Simulated time history of (a) temperature and (b) pressure of two points at the symmetrical axis produced by the pulse at 0.67J∕cm2

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Figure 8

Simulated time history of vapor velocity of the point at the symmetrical axis (z=119μm) produced by the pulse at 0.67J∕cm2

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Figure 9

Comparison of the pressure profiles along the symmetrical axis at 50ns produced by the different fluences

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Figure 10

Surface contours of pressure at (a) 10ns, (b) 30ns, and (c) 80ns produced by the pulse at 0.67J∕cm2 in the partial encrustation (10×98μm2)

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Figure 11

Comparison of the experimental and simulated ablated encrustation weight by one single pulse at different fluence levels with distilled water

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Figure 12

Comparison of the ablated encrustation weight by one single pulse at different fluence levels with different liquids

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Figure 13

Comparison of (a) temperature and (b) pressure profiles along the symmetrical axis at 50ns with the pulse at 0.67J∕cm2 with different liquids

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Figure 14

The variation of two color coordinates of marble surface cleaned at 0.67J∕cm2 without or with different liquids

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Figure 15

Raman spectra collected from marble surface cleaned at 0.67J∕cm2 without or with different liquids (Raman shifts are activated by the 514nm cw laser at a power of 20mW, the red, blue, and cyan lines have upward shifts of 500, 400, and 200 for the clarity, respectively)

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