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Research Papers

Solid Freeform Fabrication of Polycaprolactone∕Hydroxyapatite Tissue Scaffolds

[+] Author and Article Information
L. Shor, S. Güçeri

Laboratory for Computer-Aided Tissue Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104

M. Gandhi

School of Biomedical Engineering, Sciences and Health System, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104

X. Wen

Department of Bioengineering, Cell Biology, and Orthopedic Surgery, Clemson University, 173 Ashley Avenue, CRI No. 610, Charleston, SC 29425

W. Sun1

Laboratory for Computer-Aided Tissue Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104sunwei@drexel.edu

1

Corresponding author.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 130(2), 021018 (Apr 11, 2008) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2898411 History: Received April 18, 2007; Revised August 02, 2007; Published April 11, 2008

Bone tissue engineering is an emerging field providing viable substitutes for bone regeneration. Freeform fabrication provides an effective process tool to manufacture scaffolds with complex shapes and designed properties. We developed a novel precision extruding deposition (PED) technique to fabricate composite polycaprolactone∕hydroxyapatite (PCL∕HA) scaffolds. 25% concentration by weight of HA was used to reinforce 3D scaffolds. Two groups of scaffolds having 60% and 70% porosities and with pore sizes of 450μm and 750μm respectively, were evaluated for their morphology and compressive properties using scanning electron microscopy and the mechanical testing. In vitro cell-scaffold interaction study was carried out using primary fetal bovine osteoblasts. The cell proliferation and differentiation were evaluated by Alamar Blue assay and alkaline phosphatase activity. Our results suggested that compressive modulus of PCL∕HA scaffold was 84MPa for 60% porous scaffolds and was 76MPa for 70% porous scaffolds. The osteoblasts were able to migrate and proliferate for the cultured time over the scaffolds. Our study demonstrated the viability of the PED process to fabricate PCL scaffolds having necessary mechanical property, structural integrity, controlled pore size, and pore interconnectivity desired for bone tissue engineering.

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Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 6

Stress-strain curve for composite PCL∕HA scaffold

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Figure 7

Osteoblast proliferation measured by Alamar Blue assay

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Figure 8

ALP activity by osteoblasts cultured over PCL∕HA scaffolds

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Figure 9

Cell viability study showing the green fluorescence of live cells (A) and red fluorescence of dead (B) cells on PCL∕HA scaffolds

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Figure 1

Schematic of miniextruder in PED system

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Figure 2

Scaffold geometry showing the unit cell of 0∕90 pattern

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Figure 3

Naked eye (A) and optical microscopic image (B) of as-fabricated scaffold

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Figure 4

Backscatter SEM images of melt blended PCL∕HA (A) and as-fabricated scaffold (B)

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Figure 5

SEM images of melt blended PCL∕HA (A) and as-fabricated scaffold (B)

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