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Research Papers

Rheological Properties of Cell-Hydrogel Composites Extruding Through Small-Diameter Tips

[+] Author and Article Information
Jie Cheng, Haixia Liu, Yongnian Yan, Xiaohong Wang, Renji Zhang, Zhuo Xiong

Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology of Ministry of Education, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, P.R.C.

Feng Lin1

Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology of Ministry of Education, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, P.R.C.linfeng@tsinghua.edu.cn

1

Corresponding author.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 130(2), 021014 (Apr 09, 2008) (5 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2896215 History: Received May 04, 2007; Revised January 04, 2008; Published April 09, 2008

To form 3D structures with composites of living cells and hydrogel is now becoming an attractive technology in both bioengineering and manufacturing areas. Variant processes have been presented, most of which are based on the cell composite extrusion and deposition technique. So, the design of cell extrusion nozzle turns into an important phase, and the rheological properties of cell-hydrogel composites act as a key parameter and must be well investigated. In this paper, an entrance pressure detection device and adaptor for small-diameter tips were developed. With the hypothesis of power law fluid type, the power law constant and coefficient were calculated. As derived from the experimental results, the cell-hydrogel composites (with the maximum cell concentration of 107ml) show no difference from hydrogel materials in rheological properties. Based on these, the manufacturability of cell-hydrogel composites was discussed. Also, the cell viability, which is another important issue in cell assembly technology, was discussed. The peak percentage (97%) was achieved at the flow rate of 0.5mm3s. The extruding duration and the maximum shear stress loaded on cells were considered as two influence mechanisms.

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Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Process system of 3D cell assembly technology

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Figure 2

The process scheme for rheological property measurement and the picture of the system

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Figure 3

Pressure sensing device and the adaptor

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Figure 4

Flow curve of experimental results

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Figure 5

Viscosity versus concentration of chitosan (with the shear rate of 100s−1)

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Figure 6

Viscosity versus concentration of cell (with the shear rate of 100s−1, data based on 10C1G9 composites)

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Figure 7

Examples of the influences on manufacturability. (a) Too thin to form 3D structure, early collapse presented (5C1G14, approx. viscosity 0.1 Pa s). (b) High viscosity and elasticity, locally conglomeration found (10C1G9, approx. viscosity 500 Pa s). (c) Complex surface 3D structure formed with optimized parameters (10C1G9, approx. viscosity 250 Pa s).

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Figure 8

Cell viability versus flow rate (10C1G9D10)

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