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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Process Modeling in Laser Deposition of Multilayer SS410 Steel

[+] Author and Article Information
Liang Wang

Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762liangw@cavs.msstate.edu

Sergio Felicelli

Mechanical Engineering Department, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762felicelli@me.msstate.edu

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 129(6), 1028-1034 (Mar 13, 2007) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2738962 History: Received October 27, 2006; Revised March 13, 2007

A three-dimensional finite element model was developed to predict the temperature distribution and phase transformation in deposited stainless steel 410 (SS410) during the Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS™) rapid fabrication process. The development of the model was carried out using the SYSWELD software package. The model calculates the evolution of temperature in the part during the fabrication of a SS410 plate. The metallurgical transformations are taken into account using the temperature-dependent material properties and the continuous cooling transformation diagram. The ferritic and martensitic transformation as well as austenitization and tempering of martensite are considered. The influence of processing parameters such as laser power and traverse speed on the phase transformation and the consequent hardness are analyzed. The potential presence of porosity due to lack of fusion is also discussed. The results show that the temperature distribution, the microstructure, and hardness in the final part depend significantly on the processing parameters.

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Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic of LENS process

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Figure 2

Sketch to illustrate dummy material method for the element activation. M1: deposited layers and substrate, material with actual thermal properties and phase transformation; M2: layers to be deposited, material with dummy low thermal properties and without phase transformation; M3: layer being deposited, material with actual thermal properties and dummy phase.

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Figure 3

Geometry and mesh to simulate the LENS process for a ten layer plate

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Figure 4

Thermal properties used for SS410, (a) density, (b) thermal conductivity, and (c) specific heat

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Figure 5

Laser power used in the study. (a) Nominal laser power distribution at each pass for different laser travel velocities. (b) Laser power density along the travel direction from one side to another for each pass.

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Figure 6

Molten pool size and shape when the laser beam moves to the center of the part at the tenth layer for different traverse speeds. The molten pool size is determined by the melting temperature of SS410 (1450°C). (a) V=2.5mm∕s; (b) V=7.62mm∕s; and (c) V=20mm∕s.

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Figure 7

Thermal cycles at the midpoints of layers 1, 3, 5, and 10 of the built part for laser speed V=2.5mm∕s

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Figure 8

Temperature field at the time instant after the tenth layer is deposited. (a) V=2.5mm∕s; (b) V=7.62mm∕s; and (c) V=20mm∕s.

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Figure 9

Volume fraction of austenite at the time instant after the tenth layer is deposited. (a) V=2.5mm∕s; (b) V=7.62mm∕s; and (c) V=20mm∕s.

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Figure 10

Volume fraction of martensite at the time instant after the tenth layer is deposited. (a) V=2.5mm∕s; (b) V=7.62mm∕s; and (c) V=20mm∕s.

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Figure 11

Temperature distribution at the center of the fourth layer for V=2.5mm∕s

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Figure 12

Vickers hardness along the wall height center line for different laser speeds after the part cools down to room temperature

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