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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Theoretical Analysis of the Coincident Wire-Powder Laser Deposition Process

[+] Author and Article Information
Andrew J. Pinkerton

Laser Processing Research Centre, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, The University of Manchester, Sackville Street Building, P.O. Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD, UKandrew.pinkerton@manchester.ac.uk

Waheed Ul Haq Syed, Lin Li

Laser Processing Research Centre, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, The University of Manchester, Sackville Street Building, P.O. Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD, UK

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 129(6), 1019-1027 (Apr 09, 2007) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2752828 History: Received June 23, 2006; Revised April 09, 2007

The process of coincident wire and powder deposition by laser has recently emerged in research work as a layered manufacturing method with a higher deposition rate than the established laser direct metal deposition technique and as a means of creating functionally graded metallic surface layers in a single pass. This work analytically models the process by accounting for the incoming wire and powder as virtual negative heat sources. The major assumptions of the model are confirmed experimentally and the predicted temperature profiles compared with values measured using contact and pyrometric methods. Model accuracy outside the molten zone is excellent, but this solution does not account for latent heat and intrapool circulation effects so it gives only moderate precision when extrapolated to within the melt pool. Increasing the mass feed rate to the melt pool reduces its depth and the temperature surrounding it—these effects can be quantified in three dimensions by the model.

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Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Coincident wire and powder deposition by laser (schematic): (a) side view (x-z plane); (b) plan view

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Figure 2

Power attenuation by the powder stream

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Figure 3

Apparatus used to test powder flow

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Figure 4

Powder flow and distribution (0.11g∕s, 3L∕min)

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Figure 5

Apparatus used to test substrate temperature distribution

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Figure 6

Centerline temperatures 5mm below the exposed surface: (a) powder mass flow rate 0.218g∕s, wire mass feed rate 0.101g∕s; (b) powder mass flow rate 0.073g∕s, wire mass feed rate 0.034g∕s; (c) powder mass flow rate 1.23g∕s; and (d) wire mass feed rate 0.402g∕s

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Figure 7

The effect of mass addition on temperature 5mm below the exposed surface (modeled)

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Figure 8

A thermal image of the upper surface of the melt pool (8.33mm∕s wire, equivalent to 0.034g∕s, and 0.073g∕s powder mass feed rates)

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Figure 9

Measured and modeled centerline temperatures on the exposed surface

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Figure 10

Modeled centerline temperatures showing the effect of increasing total mass feed rate: (a) at the upper surface; (b)2.5mm below surface; and (c)5mm below surface

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