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RESEARCH PAPERS

Cutting Tool Temperature Analysis in Heat-Pipe Assisted Composite Machining

[+] Author and Article Information
Jie Liu1

Mechanical Engineering Department, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487

Y. Kevin Chou

Mechanical Engineering Department, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487kchou@eng.ua.edu

1

Currently with Robert Bosch Tool Corporation.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 129(5), 902-910 (Apr 08, 2007) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2752528 History: Received June 15, 2006; Revised April 08, 2007

Machining of advanced materials, such as composite, encounters high cutting temperatures and rapid tool wear because of the abrasive nature of the reinforcement phases in the workpiece materials. Ultrahard coatings, such as chemical vapor deposition diamond, have been used for machining such advanced materials. Wear of diamond-coated tools is characterized by catastrophic coating failure, plausibly due to the high stress developed at the coating-substrate interface at high temperatures because of very different elastic moduli and thermal expansion coefficients. Temperature reductions, therefore, may delay the onset of the coating failure and offer tool life extension. In this study, a passive heat-dissipation device, the heat pipe, has been incorporated in composite machining. Though it is intuitive that heat transfer enhanced by the heat pipe may reduce tool temperatures, the heat pipe will likely increase heat partitioning into the tool at the rake face, and complicate the temperature reduction effectiveness. A combined experimental, analytical, and numerical approach was used to investigate the heat-pipe effects on cutting tool temperatures. A machining experiment was conducted and the heat-source characteristics were analyzed using cutting mechanics. With the heat sources as input, cutting tool temperatures in machining, without or with a heat pipe, were analyzed using finite element simulations. The simulations encompass a 3-D model of a cutting tool system and a 2-D chip model. The heat flux over the rake-face contact area was used in both models with an unknown heat partition coefficient, determined by matching the average temperature at the tool-chip contact from the two models. Cutting tool temperatures were also measured in machining using thermocouples. The simulation results agree reasonably with the experiment. The model was used to evaluate how the heat pipe modifies the heat transport in a cutting tool system. Applying heat-pipe cooling inevitably increases the heat flux into the tool because of the enhanced heat dissipation. However, the heat pipe is still able to reduce the tool-chip contact temperatures, though not dramatically at current settings. The parametric study using the finite element analysis (FEA) models shows that the cooling efficiency decreases as the cutting speed and feed increase, because of the increased heat flux and heat-source area. In addition, increasing the heat-pipe volume and decreasing the heat-pipe distance to the heat source enhances the heat-pipe cooling effectiveness.

Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Tool wear development of diamond-coated tools in Al composite machining

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Figure 2

SEM images of a worn diamond-coated tool: (a) material deposit on the tool edge and (b) coating peeling off

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Figure 3

Research approaches used in this study

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Figure 4

Temperature measurement locations in machining

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Figure 5

Heat-pipe relative location to a cutting tool, top view, p is the distance from the heat-pipe center line to the furthest point of the cutting tip

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Figure 6

(a) Cutting chip example and (b) polished chip cross-section from machining (V=3m∕s, f=0.3mm∕rev)

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Figure 7

(a) A meshed cutting tool model and (b) geometry and dimensions of a heat pipe used in this study

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Figure 8

A geometric model of a 2-D cutting chip thermal model

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Figure 9

Heat flux at different machining conditions (with and without heat pipe): (a) shear-plane heat sources and (b) rake-face heat sources

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Figure 12

Comparison of chip temperature at different configurations: (a) simplified uniform-thickness straight chip, (b) serrated chip with equivalent average thickness, and (c) curled and uniform thickness (5mm radius) (V=3m∕s, f=0.3mm∕rev)

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Figure 13

Heat-pipe effects on the rake-face heat partition coefficient at different machining conditions (cutting speed: m/s; feed: mm/rev)

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Figure 14

Average tool-chip contact temperatures modified due to heat-pipe cooling at different machining conditions (cutting speed: m/s; feed: mm/rev)

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Figure 15

Differences of cutting tool temperatures (ΔT3) between the simulation and measurements (cutting speed: m/s; feed: mm/rev)

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Figure 16

Tool temperature comparison at T2, with and without heat-pipe cooling (cutting speed: m/s; feed: mm/rev)

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Figure 17

Example of simulated temperature contours around measurement locations: (a)T2 location and (b)T3 location in machining at 1m∕s and 0.1mm∕rev. The circles have a 3mm diameter.

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Figure 19

Heat-source size effects on the relative temperature reductions by various heat-pipe settings. Note, Tref is the average temperature without a heat pipe.

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Figure 18

Heat-flux effects on the relative temperature reductions by various heat-pipe settings. Note, Tref is the average temperature without a heat pipe.

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Figure 11

Example of temperature contours in the chip during machining: (a) without heat pipe and (b) with heat pipe (V=1m∕s, f=0.1mm∕rev)

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Figure 10

Examples of tool temperature contours in machining: (a) without heat pipe and (b) with heat pipe (V=1m∕s, f=0.1mm∕rev)

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