Finite Element Simulation of Magnesium Extrusion to Manufacture a Cross-Shaped Profile

[+] Author and Article Information
Gang Liu

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft, The Netherlands; School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 435, Harbin 150001, China

Jie Zhou1

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft, The Netherlandsj.zhou@tudelft.nl

Jurek Duszczyk

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft, The Netherlands


Corresponding author.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 129(3), 607-614 (Jan 15, 2007) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2714590 History: Received April 19, 2006; Revised January 15, 2007

At present, a fundamental knowledge of the thermal and mechanical interactions occurring during the extrusion of magnesium is lacking. This acts as a serious technological barrier to the cost-effective manufacturing of lightweight magnesium alloy profiles. In the present research, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) simulation of extrusion to produce a magnesium alloy profile with a cross shape was carried out as an efficient means to gain this understanding. It revealed the redistribution of temperatures in the billet throughout the process from the transient state to the steady state, the formation of the deformation zone and dead metal zone, and varying fields of effective stress, effective strain, effective strain rate, and temperature close to the die orifice. The predicted extrudate temperature and extrusion pressure were compared with experimental measurements. The key to controlling the extrudate temperature and extrusion process was found to lie in the capabilities of predicting the temperature evolution during transient extrusion, as affected by extrusion conditions. The relationship between ram speed and the extrudate temperature increase from the initial billet temperature was established and experimentally validated.

Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Cross section of the extrudate with the shaded area selected for simulation

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Figure 2

FE model of the billet and extrusion tooling to produce the cross-shaped profile as illustrated in Fig. 1

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Figure 3

The instrumented direct extrusion press used experimental verification

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Figure 8

Effective stress, effective strain rate, effective strain, and temperature fields at different ram displacements (simulation results)

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Figure 9

Predicted evolution of extrudate temperature at various ram speeds

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Figure 10

Comparison in extrudate temperature between the experiment and simulation of extrusion at a ram speed of 6mm∕s

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Figure 11

Comparison in pressure during the extrusion at a ram speed of 6mm∕s between simulation results and experimental measurements

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Figure 12

Relationship between ram speed and extrudate temperature increase both predicted and experimentally measured

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Figure 7

Areas with flow velocities lower than 0.5mm∕s (dark color) outlining the dead metal zone at the corners in the front part of the billet (simulation results)

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Figure 5

Positions (a) and evolution (b) of the maximum and minimum temperatures during extrusion at a ram speed of 6mm∕s, revealed by computer simulation

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Figure 4

Predicted temperature evolution during the extrusion at a ram speed of 6mm∕s and at various ram displacements (S) in both the transient state and the steady state

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Figure 6

Iso-surfaces of high effective strain rates outlining the deformation zone, revealed by computer simulation




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