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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Laser Direct-Part Marking of Data Matrix Symbols on Carbon Steel Substrates

[+] Author and Article Information
Witaya Jangsombatsiri

Department of Industrial Technology, Mississippi Valley State University, Itta Bena, MS 38941

J. David Porter1

Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331david.porter@orst.edu

1

Corresponding author.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 129(3), 583-591 (Feb 08, 2007) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2716704 History: Received July 21, 2005; Revised February 08, 2007

Certain applications have recently appeared in industry where a traditional bar code printed on a label will not survive because the item to be tracked has to be exposed to harsh environments. Laser direct-part marking is a manufacturing process used to create permanent marks on a substrate that could help to alleviate this problem. In this research, a 532 nm Nd:YAG laser was utilized to produce Data Matrix symbols onto carbon steel substrates. The quality of the laser marked Data Matrix symbol was then evaluated according to the ISO/IEC 16022 bar code technology specification for Data Matrix. Several experiments were conducted to explore the effects that different parameters have on the quality of the laser direct-part marked symbols. Parameters such as type of carbon steel, percent of laser tool path overlap, profile speed, average power, and frequency were found to have significant effects on the quality of the Data Matrix symbols produced with the laser. The analysis of the results indicated that contrast and print growth were the critical ISO/IEC 16022 standard performance measures that limited the laser marked Data Matrix symbols from achieving a higher final grade.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
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Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Topics: Lasers , Carbon steel
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Code 39bar-code and Data Matrix symbol encoding "Oregon State University"

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Figure 2

Research methodology to identify critical parameters in lased direct-part marking

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Figure 3

Example of a Data Matrix reference symbol

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Figure 4

Individual module of a Data Matrix symbol

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Figure 5

Laser tool path patterns: Spiral (left) and zigzag (right)

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Figure 6

Magnified photographs (25X) of the produced symbols before (left) and after (right) the cleaning process

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Figure 7

SEM photographs (100X) of the produced symbols before (left) and after (right) the cleaning process

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Figure 8

SEM photographs (500X) of the produced symbols before (left) and after (right) the cleaning process

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Figure 9

Comparison of final grade before and after the cleaning process

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Figure 10

Constraint to final grade before and after the cleaning process

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