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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Lapping of Electrical Discharge Machining Processed Tool Steel Surface Using Elliptical Tool Motion

[+] Author and Article Information
Masahiro Mizuno

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551, Japanm.mizuno@iwate-u.ac.jp

Toshirou Iyama, Susumu Sugawara

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551, Japan

Bi Zhang

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Connecticut, U-139, 191 Auditorium Road, Storrs, CT 06269-3139

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 129(3), 502-512 (Nov 21, 2006) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2714584 History: Received January 30, 2006; Revised November 21, 2006

A prototype lapping machine, which finishes surfaces by applying elliptical motions to a lapping tool in the presence of diamond compound, is developed. This paper describes the structure of the lapping machine, the 2-dimensional tool motions measured on the machine, the behavior of the diamond compounds between the tool and lapping surfaces, and the fundamental lapping performance. The tool motions are measured using a laser Doppler vibrometer and the proportional constants that are needed to obtain an objective tool motion are determined with the regression technique. The motion behavior of the diamond abrasive grains for each tool motion is directly observed with a microscope through a glass plate. Lapping experiments are conducted under the conditions with and without the work-feed. After lapping, the workpiece surface is measured using a surface profilometer for surface roughness and profile information. As a result, a surface roughness of less than 0.1μmRa is achieved using a 3μm compound and near-circular tool motion of 12.5μm radius.

Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Topics: Motion , Grinding
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Figures

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Figure 1

Outline of the experimental lapping machine: (a) structure of the lapping machine; (b) displacement of the tool end; (c) example of the elliptical motion of the tool end

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Figure 2

Control system of experimental lapping machine: (a) control system diagram; and (b) circuit diagram of the PZT driver

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Figure 3

Truing method for the tool end

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Figure 4

Measurement method for the two-dimensional tool motion

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Figure 5

Method used to observe the behavior of diamond grains between the tool end and lapping surface

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Figure 6

Lapping area and surface roughness measurement position

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Figure 8

Distortion of tool motion (Motion C) caused by lapping force: (a) tool motions at different lapping forces Fz,av; and (b) FFT analyses of the wave forms of Dx and Dy measured at Fz,av=16N

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Figure 9

Images of the flow of 3μm diamond compound for different tool motions at Fz,av=2N (average lapping force is 0.5MPa). Images (a)–(e) correspond to Motions A–E, respectively

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Figure 10

Images of the flow of different diamond compounds in Motion C at Fz,av=2N (average lapping force is 0.5MPa): (a)6μm diamond compound; (b)9μm diamond compound; and (c)15μm diamond compound

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Figure 17

Surface profiles generated by down-mode lapping with Motion C: (a)3μm diamond compound; (b)6μm diamond compound; (c)9μm diamond compound; and (d)15μm diamond compound

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Figure 18

Changes of average surface roughness Ra, as lapping progresses for differing lapping pressures

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Figure 19

Relationship between lapping pressure and the average surface roughness, Ra, measured in the x and y directions. The error bars show the standard deviation for the three experiments.

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Figure 7

Examples of measured tool motion at Fz,av=0N and 2N: (a) Motion A; (b) Motion B; (c) Motion C; (d) Motion D; (e) Motion E; and (f) Motion F

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Figure 16

Relationship between grain size and the average surface roughness, Ra, measured in the x and y directions. The error bars show the standard deviation for the three experiments.

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Figure 15

Changes of average surface roughness, Ra, as lapping progresses for differing lapping conditions: (a)3μm compound; (b)6μm compound; (c)9μm compound; and (d)15μm compound

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Figure 14

Tool end profiles after lapping: (a) Motion C with 3μm diamond compound; (b) Motion C with 15μm diamond compound; and (c) Motion E with 15μm diamond compound

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Figure 13

Resultant surface profiles generated (without work feed): images (a)–(e) correspond to Motions A–E, respectively

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Figure 12

Relationship between grain size and material removal volume under no work-feed condition. The error bars show the standard deviation for the three experiments.

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Figure 11

Images of the flow of 3μm diamond compound at different Fz,av in Motion C: (a)Fz,av=4N(1MPa); (b)Fz,av=8N(2MPa); and (c)Fz,av=16N(4MPa)

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