Inspection of White Layer in Hard Turned Components Using Electrochemical Methods

[+] Author and Article Information
Ian S. Harrison

 The Timken Company, 7 Research Drive, Greenville, SC 29607

Thomas R. Kurfess

International Center for Automotive Research, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634

Edward J. Oles

 Kennametal Inc., Latrobe, PA 15650

Preet M. Singh

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 129(2), 447-452 (Aug 23, 2006) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2540655 History: Received January 22, 2006; Revised August 23, 2006

This paper presents the results of electrochemical tests on hard turned steel components that have white layer on the surface. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is used to compare a machined surface with white layer against a machined surface without white layer, an annealed surface, and an electrical discharge machined surface. Measurements of the steady-state open-circuit potential are also used for comparison. The results show that the electrochemical properties of a surface with white layer are distinct from a surface without white layer. Specifically, a surface with white layer is more anodic and has lower electrochemical impedance than a surface without white layer in a NaOH solution. These results provide insight into the electrochemical properties of white layer and indicate that surfaces with white layer may corrode more quickly in service.

Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

A sample without white layer (a) and a sample with white layer (b)

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Figure 2

Randles cell circuit model for EIS tests

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Figure 3

Example (a) Nyquist plot and (b) Bode plots for the Randles cell circuit shown in Fig. 2, using Rs=10Ω, Rp=100Ω, and C=20μF (see Ref. 17)

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Figure 4

Cross-section dimensions of the components

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Figure 5

Example micrographs of each surface condition: (a) no white layer, low speed, (b) no white layer, high speed, (c) white layer, low speed, (d) white layer, high speed, (e) EDM, and (f) annealed

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Figure 6

Schematic of three-electrode corrosion cell for electrochemical measurement

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Figure 7

Nyquist plot of EIS results

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Figure 8

Bode magnitude plot (a) and Bode phase plot (b) of EIS results

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Figure 9

Electrochemical potential of samples



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