Experimental and Numerical Investigations of a Split-Ring Test for Springback

[+] Author and Article Information
Z. Cedric Xia, Craig E. Miller, Feng Ren

Scientific Research Laboratories, Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI 48121

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 129(2), 352-359 (Aug 22, 2006) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2673341 History: Received February 24, 2006; Revised August 22, 2006

This paper presents an in-depth experimental and numerical investigation of a split-ring test, which provides a simple yet effective benchmark for correlating forming and springback predictive capabilities with experimental measurements. The experimental procedure consists of deep drawing a circular 6111-T4 aluminum alloy into a cylindrical cup of 55mm depth, crosscutting nine rings each of 5mm wide from the cup, splitting the rings, and measuring their opening displacement, i.e., the springback amount. Experimental data obtained included punch force trajectories, drawn cup profile, thickness distribution after forming, and the ring openings after splitting. A numerical model is built to analyze the process, and both transversely isotropic and fully orthotropic yield criteria are investigated. Simulation results are validated against experimental data. A detailed numerical analysis is also conducted for stress distributions in each ring after each step and their relationship to the total springback amount. Stress and strain signatures suggested that the test is well suited for validating material models, such as anisotropic yield surface models and hardening models.

Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Experimental setup for the cup drawing

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Figure 2

Ring cuts from the drawn cup

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Figure 3

Selected rings before and after split: (a) ring 1 (before and after split), (b) ring 7 (before and after split), and (c) ring 9 (before and after split)

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Figure 4

Tensile curve for AA6111-T4

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Figure 5

Finite element mesh in the model: (a) initial blank and (b) drawn cup

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Figure 6

Strain distributions after cup forming, for metal inner surface, middle surface, and outer surface: (a) radial strain distribution and (b) hoop strain distribution

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Figure 7

Section membrane forces after each deformation step, as a function of cup height: (a) radial membrane forces and (b) hoop membrane forces

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Figure 8

Section bending moments after each deformation step, as a function of cup height: (a) radial bending moments and (b) hoop bending moment

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Figure 9

Stress distributions for a material section in the middle of ring 5, after each process step: (a) radial stress distribution across thickness and (b) hoop stress distribution across thickness

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Figure 10

Strain trajectories for three surfaces of one material section over entire deformation history

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Figure 11

Stress trajectories for three surfaces of one material section over entire deformation history

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Figure 12

Cup profile after drawing

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Figure 13

Thickness distribution of the drawn cup (the larger variations between simulation and measurement near both ends were caused by inaccuracies of ultrasonic thickness measurements on a curved surface)

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Figure 14

Punch load versus punch travel

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Figure 15

Ring opening displacement after splitting (springback displacement)



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