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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Deposition Pattern Based Thermal Stresses in Single-Layer Laser Aided Direct Material Deposition Process

[+] Author and Article Information
S. Ghosh

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Missouri-Rolla, 1870 Miner Circle, Rolla, MO 65409

J. Choi1

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Missouri-Rolla, 1870 Miner Circle, Rolla, MO 65409jchoi@umr.edu

1

Corresponding author.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 129(2), 319-332 (Jul 26, 2006) (14 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2401620 History: Received February 04, 2006; Revised July 26, 2006

Despite enormous progress in laser aided direct metal/material deposition (LADMD) process many issues concerning the adverse effects of process parameters on the stability of a variety of properties and the integrity of microstructure have been reported. Comprehensive understanding of the transport phenomena and heat transfer analysis is essential to predict the thermally induced stresses in the deposited materials. A complete model that provides a quantitative relationship between process parameters, temperature history, phase transformation kinetics, and the thermal stresses is highly desirable. This paper examines the effect of deposition patterns and phase transformation kinetics on induced thermal stresses. The proposed model is based on the metallo-thermo-mechanical theory for sequentially coupled temperature, phase transformation, and stress/strain fields. Finite element analysis of various deposition processes illustrates the significant effect of deposition patterns on induced thermal stresses. Raster scan, spiral in-to-out, and spiral out-to-in patterns, in conjunction with their experimental verification, have been discussed in this paper. The existing model can easily accommodate any deposition pattern a user may want to study with slight modifications. The effect of substrate preheating on thermal stress is also studied and some reductions in thermal residual stress were observed. The importance of considering phase transformation effects is also verified through the comparison of the magnitudes of residual stresses with and without the inclusion of phase transformation kinetics. The simulation has been carried out for H13 tool steel deposited on a mild steel substrate.

Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Metallo-thermo-mechanical coupling in processes involving phase transformation

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Figure 2

Flow chart showing the residual stress calculation procedure with the inclusion of phase transformation

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Figure 3

Flow chart showing the steps of Interface program 1 required for the calculation of phase transformation induced stresses

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Figure 4

Schematic of a single-layer laser aided deposited material. Point a is on top of the deposited layer. Point b is at the interface of the substrate and deposited layer.

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Figure 5

Various deposition patterns for single-layer laser aided material deposition shown earlier in Fig. 3. (a) Raster zigzag pattern, (b) raster YY pattern (with intermediate cooling), (c) spiral in-to-out pattern, and (d) spiral out-to-in pattern.

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Figure 6

Temperature variation at point a in raster zigzag pattern

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Figure 7

Time-temperature transformation (TTT) diagram of H13 tool steel

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Figure 8

Comparison of (a) transverse (S11) and (b) longitudinal (S22) transient stresses at point b with and without phase transformation effects in raster zigzag pattern

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Figure 9

Comparison of (a) transverse (S11) and (b) longitudinal (S22) transient stresses at point b with and without phase transformation effects in raster YY pattern

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Figure 10

Comparison of (a) S11 and (b) S22 transient stresses at point b with and without phase transformation effects in spiral in-to-out pattern

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Figure 11

Comparison of (a) S11 and (b) S22 transient stresses at point b with and without phase transformation effects in spiral out-to-in pattern

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Figure 12

(a) Transverse (S11) and (b) longitudinal (S22) thermal stresses at point b of raster zigzag pattern with substrate preheating to 450K

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Figure 13

(a) Transverse (S11) and (b) longitudinal (S22) thermal stresses at point b of raster YY pattern with substrate preheating to 450K

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Figure 14

(a) S11 and (b) S22 thermal stresses at point b of spiral in-to-out pattern with substrate preheating to 450K

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Figure 15

(a) S11 and (b) S22 thermal stresses at point b of spiral out-to-in pattern with substrate preheating to 450K

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Figure 16

LADMD process samples for single-layer H13 tool steel deposited on mild steel substrate. (a) Raster zigzag, (b) spiral in-to-out, and (c) spiral out-to-in pattern

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Figure 17

(a) Transverse (S11) and (b) longitudinal (S22) thermal stresses at point a of raster zigzag pattern

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Figure 18

(a) S11 and (b) S22 thermal stresses at point a of spiral in-to-out pattern

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Figure 19

(a) S11 and (b) S22 thermal stresses at point a of spiral out-to-in pattern

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