This paper presents an effective and low-cost method for fabricating spherical and aspheric microlenses based on excimer laser LIGA-like processes. It is based on a newly developed excimer laser micromachining technique that can accurately machine a 3D microstructure with a predetermined continuous surface profile. The method is called the planetary scanning method since it is based on a combination of sample rotation and revolution and a concept of laser machining probability. Spherical and aspheric microlenses with precise and smooth surface profiles are fabricated by direct laser machining on polymer materials. Laser-machined microlenses are replicated by electroforming to obtain inverse metal molds. Finally, plastic microlenses are replicated from these metal molds using hot embossing method. The profile accuracy and surface roughness of the produced microlenses at each stage have been measured and monitored. The average surface profile accuracy is better than and average surface roughness is less than . Optical performance of the fabricated microlenses is evaluated by measuring the light intensity distribution at the focal plane and the focal length. Experimental data show that the characteristics of fabricated spherical and aspheric microlenses are well matched to the theoretical predictions, which demonstrates the controllability and accuracy of this micromachining process. Potential applications and further developments will be addressed.